• 1 Faculty of International Maritime Studies, Kasetsart University, Sri Racha Campus, 199 Moo 6 Sukhumvit Rd., Tungsukla, Sri Racha, Chonburi, 20230, Thailand
  • 2 Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • 3 Coastal Management & Oceanography Research Centre, National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change, 43300, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
Heliyon, 2022 Dec;8(12):e12626.
PMID: 36619456 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12626


Coastlines are constantly threatened by erosion. Effective coastal defense structures with the least environmental impacts are increasingly required. Submerged and emerged breakwaters have been implemented globally, while positively or negatively creating impacts on the environment. One of the most significant concerns in applying breakwaters is how to minimize their undesirable consequences on the environment. Thus, a thorough understanding of how submerged and emerged breakwaters affect the surrounding environment must be achieved. This article critically reviews and summarizes their environmental impacts on beach morphology, hydrodynamics, ecology, tourism, and recreation, as well as other notable impacts. This is a review article that may help coastal practitioners to manage coastal erosion with breakwaters more sustainably.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.