Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 207 in total

  1. Nor ANM, Corstanje R, Harris JA, Grafius DR, Siriwardena GM
    Heliyon, 2017 Jun;3(6):e00325.
    PMID: 28706999 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00325
    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for biodiversity conservation and urban planning.
  2. Rahman MR, Hamdan S, Lai JCH, Jawaid M, Yusof FABM
    Heliyon, 2017 Jul;3(7):e00342.
    PMID: 28725868 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00342
    In this study, the physical, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of furfuryl alcohol/2-ethylhexyl methacrylate/halloysite nanoclay wood polymer nanocomposites (FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNCs) were investigated. FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNCs were prepared via an impregnation method and the properties of the nanocomposites were characterized through the weight percent gain, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), three-point flexural test, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and moisture absorption test. The weight percent gain in the 50:50 FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNC was the highest compared with the raw wood (RW) and other WPNCs. The FT-IR results confirmed that polymerization took place in the nanocomposites, especially 50:50 FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNC, which had a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups. The SEM results revealed that the 50:50 FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNC had the smoothest and most uniform surface among all of the nanocomposites. The 50:50 FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNC showed the highest flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. The results revealed that the storage modulus and loss modulus of the FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNCs were higher and the tan δ of FA-co-EHMA-HNC WNPCs was lower compared with the RW. The FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNCs exhibited the higher thermal stability in the TGA and DSC analysis. The 50:50 FA-co-EHMA-HNC WPNC exhibited remarkably lower moisture absorption compared with the RW. Overall, this study proved that the ratio 50:50 FA-co-EHMA ratio was the most suitable for introduction in the in the RW.
  3. Tagiling N, Ab Rashid R, Azhan SNA, Dollah N, Geso M, Rahman WN
    Heliyon, 2018 Oct;4(10):e00864.
    PMID: 30364574 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00864
    Proper dosimetry settings are crucial in radiotherapy to ensure accurate radiation dose delivery. This work evaluated scanning parameters as affecting factors in reading the dose-response of EBT2 and EBT3 radiochromic films (RCFs) irradiated with clinical photon and electron beams. The RCFs were digitised using Epson® Expression® 10000XL flatbed scanner and image analyses of net optical density (netOD) were conducted using five scanning parameters i.e. film type, resolution, image bit depth, colour to grayscale transformation and image inversion. The results showed that increasing spatial resolution and deepening colour depth did not improve film sensitivity, while grayscale scanning caused sensitivity reduction below than that detected in the Red-channel. It is also evident that invert and colour negative film type selection negated netOD values, hence unsuitable for scanning RCFs. In conclusion, choosing appropriate scanning parameters are important to maintain preciseness and reproducibility in films dosimetry.
  4. Lim BH, Majlan EH, Daud WRW, Rosli MI, Husaini T
    Heliyon, 2018 Oct;4(10):e00845.
    PMID: 30338304 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00845
    The flow distribution of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell within a manifold plays an important role on its performance. This study presents a numerical analysis of the flow distribution behavior within different manifold configurations. A two-dimensional model with 75 cells was employed to study the flow behavior. The variation in the stoichiometry and number of cells was also studied. Three different flow configurations were considered with different numbers of flow inlets and outlets. The flow characteristics, such as the pressure and velocity variations in the manifold and cells, were measured to determine the effects of the different flow configurations. The results indicated that the double inlet/outlet configuration had the best flow distribution when using 75 cells. Moreover, increasing the stoichiometry resulted in a better flow distribution to the cells in a stack.
  5. Gul Y, Sultan Z, Jokhio GA
    Heliyon, 2018 Aug;4(8):e00715.
    PMID: 30094383 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00715
    It has been reported in the literature that the perception of crime at the neighbourhood level inversely affects the walking behaviour of individuals. On the other hand, the gated neighbourhoods are considered safe from crime, however, there is a lack of research on the association of the perception of crime and walking in gated neighbourhoods. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported in this paper were to investigate the association between the perception of crime and walking in gated and non-gated neighbourhoods. A questionnaire was used to collect the data on walking and the perception of crime in 16 neighbourhoods of Karachi Pakistan, 8 out of which were gated. Independent sample t-test and gamma tests were used for the data analysis. The results show that although there is a lower perception of crime in the gated neighbourhoods, yet the inhabitants of gated neighbourhoods engage in less physical activity comprising of walking. In spite of a greater perception of crime in non-gated neighbourhoods, higher values of walking were reported by the residents of those neighbourhoods. Therefore, it has been concluded that there does not exist a definite relationship between the perception of crime and walking behaviour at the neighbourhood level and the perceived safety from crime claimed by the proponents of the gated neighbourhoods does not encourage walking among the residents.
  6. Shaari N, Kamarudin SK, Basri S
    Heliyon, 2018 Sep;4(9):e00808.
    PMID: 30246163 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00808
    The influence of methanol as a solvent on the properties of sodium alginate/sulfonated graphene oxide (SA/SGO) membranes was explored in water-methanol mixed conditions with various methanol concentrations and temperatures through molecular dynamics simulations. The methanol uptake of the membrane showed an isolation phase determined from the simulation results. The distance between the sulfonic acid groups increased in higher methanol concentrations, as observed from S-S RDFs. Furthermore, the distance between the SA-chain RDFs and the solvent molecules was analysed to determine a) the affinity of water towards the sulfonic acid groups and b) the affinity of the aromatic backbone of the SA towards methanol molecules. A decrease in water molecule diffusion led to an increase in methanol diffusion and uptake. SA/SGO membranes exhibited a smaller diffusion coefficient than that for the Nafion membranes, as calculated from simulation results and compared to the experimental work. Additionally, the diffusion ability increased at higher temperatures for all permeants. The interaction information obtained is useful for DMFC applications.
  7. You HW
    Heliyon, 2018 Oct;4(10):e00848.
    PMID: 30386825 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00848
    The side sensitive group runs (SSGR) chart is better than both the Shewhart and synthetic charts in detecting small and moderate process mean shifts. In practical circumstances, the process parameters are seldom known, so it is necessary to estimate them from in-control Phase-I samples. Research has discovered that a large number of in-control Phase-I samples are needed for the SSGR chart with estimated process parameters to behave similarly to a chart with known process parameters. The common metric to evaluate the performance of the control chart is average run length (ARL). An assumption for the computation of the ARL is that the shift size is assumed to be known. In reality however, the practitioners may not know the following shift size in advance. In light of this, the expected average run length (EARL) will be considered to measure the performance of the SSGR chart. Moreover, the standard deviation of the ARL (SDARL) will be studied, which is used to quantify the between-practitioner variability in the SSGR chart with estimated process parameters. This paper proposes the optimal design of the estimated process parameters SSGR chart based on the EARL criterion. The application of the optimal SSGR chart with estimated process parameters is demonstrated with actual data taken from a manufacturing company.
  8. Abiodun OI, Jantan A, Omolara AE, Dada KV, Mohamed NA, Arshad H
    Heliyon, 2018 Nov;4(11):e00938.
    PMID: 30519653 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00938
    This is a survey of neural network applications in the real-world scenario. It provides a taxonomy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and furnish the reader with knowledge of current and emerging trends in ANN applications research and area of focus for researchers. Additionally, the study presents ANN application challenges, contributions, compare performances and critiques methods. The study covers many applications of ANN techniques in various disciplines which include computing, science, engineering, medicine, environmental, agriculture, mining, technology, climate, business, arts, and nanotechnology, etc. The study assesses ANN contributions, compare performances and critiques methods. The study found that neural-network models such as feedforward and feedback propagation artificial neural networks are performing better in its application to human problems. Therefore, we proposed feedforward and feedback propagation ANN models for research focus based on data analysis factors like accuracy, processing speed, latency, fault tolerance, volume, scalability, convergence, and performance. Moreover, we recommend that instead of applying a single method, future research can focus on combining ANN models into one network-wide application.
  9. Rodriguez O, Stone W, Schemitsch EH, Zalzal P, Waldman S, Papini M, et al.
    Heliyon, 2017 Oct;3(10):e00420.
    PMID: 29034340 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00420
    In an attempt to combat the possibility of bacterial infection and insufficient bone growth around metallic, surgical implants, bioactive glasses may be employed as coatings. In this work, silica-based and borate-based glass series were synthesized for this purpose and subsequently characterized in terms of antibacterial behavior, solubility and cytotoxicity. Borate-based glasses were found to exhibit significantly superior antibacterial properties and increased solubility compared to their silica-based counterparts, with BRT0 and BRT3 (borate-based glasses with 0 and 15 mol% of titanium dioxide incorporated, respectively) outperforming the remainder of the glasses, both borate and silicate based, in these respects. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy confirmed the release of zinc ions (Zn(2+)), which has been linked to the antibacterial abilities of glasses SRT0, BRT0 and BRT3, with inhibition effectively achieved at concentrations lower than 0.7 ppm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed that cell proliferation was affected by all glasses in this study, with decreased proliferation attributed to a faster release of sodium ions over calcium ions in both glass series, factor known to slow cell proliferation in vitro.
  10. Noor AF, Soo TCC, Ghani FM, Goh ZH, Khoo LT, Bhassu S
    Heliyon, 2017 Dec;3(12):e00446.
    PMID: 29322096 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00446
    Background: Dystrophin, an essential protein functional in the maintenance of muscle structural integrity is known to be responsible for muscle deterioration during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection among prawn species. Previous studies have shown the upregulation of dystrophin protein in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (the giant freshwater prawn) upon white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The literature has also suggested the important role of calcium ion alterations in causing such muscle diseases. Thus, the interest of this study lies within the linkage between dystrophin functioning, intracellular calcium and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection condition.

    Methods: In this study, the dystrophin gene from M. rosenbergii (MrDys) was first characterised followed by the characterization of dystrophin gene from a closely related shrimp species, Penaeus monodon (PmDys). Dystrophin sequences from different phyla were then used for evolutionary comparison through BLAST analysis, conserved domain analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The changes in mRNA expression levels of dystrophin and the alteration of intracellular calcium concentrations in WSSV infected muscle cells were then studied.

    Results: A 1246 base pair long dystrophin sequence was identified in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrDys) followed by 1082 base pair long dystrophin sequence in P. monodon (PmDys). Four conserved domains were identified from the thirteen dystrophin sequences compared which were classified into 5 different phyla. From the phylogenetic analysis, aside from PmDys, the characterised MrDys was shown to be most similar to the invertebrate phylum of Nematoda. In addition, an initial down-regulation of dystrophin gene expression followed by eventual up-regulation, together with an increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]
    were shown upon WSSV experimental infection.

    Discussion: Both the functionality of the dystrophin protein and the intracellular calcium concentration were affected by WSSV infection which resulted in progressive muscle degeneration. An increased understanding of the role of dystrophin-calcium in MrDys and the interactions between these two components is necessary to prevent or reduce occurrences of muscle degeneration caused by WSSV infection, thereby reducing economic losses in the prawn farming industry from such disease.

  11. Cheng WY, Liu MT
    Heliyon, 2018 Feb;4(2):e00518.
    PMID: 29560442 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00518
    Sixteen mumps virus (MuV) sequences collected in Taiwan between 2006 and 2016 were characterized as genotype F (n = 1), G (n = 7), H (n = 4), J (n = 2), and K (n = 2). Mumps genotype F strain was imported from China in 2008 which was in accordance with the epidemic genotype in China. The Philippines was indicated as export country of three genotype H strains in 2007-2010 and Vietnam as export country of one genotype K strain in 2016 that matched with genotypes described in previous reports. Four strains of genotype G were imported from Japan, Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar individually indicated that genotype G spreads widely in Asia as well as in the global. In this study, mumps strains of genotype G was first reported in relation to import from Malaysia and Myanmar. Furthermore, Indonesia was referred to export MuV of genotype J in 2007 for the first time. Molecular genotyping benefits the differentiation of circulating mumps viruses and can be used to investigate the transmission pathways. The dynamic genotypes of imported cases revealed the epidemic genotypes in nearby countries.
  12. Mansor AF, Azmi AI, Zain MZM, Jamaluddin R
    Heliyon, 2020 Aug;6(8):e04812.
    PMID: 32913911 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04812
    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) has a unique capacity to restore its initial shape after deformation, which is highly applicable to orthopaedic implantations, especially for the minimization of invasive surgeries. The high nickel content of this alloy can lead to unfavourable effects on the human body upon dissolution; thus, a reliable barrier of coatings on the NiTi surface is required to alleviate the nickel migration and increase its biocompatibility. In this paper, analyses of a titanium oxide layer development on NiTi surface using electrical discharge coating (EDC) process is presented. The recast layer thickness, crater sizes, and surface roughness were characterized based on five parameters; polarity, discharge duration, pulse interval, peak current, and gap voltage. The results show that the discharge duration is the most significant parameter to influence all responses, followed by peak current. The surface characteristics of the EDC substrate is depending on the crater formations and is highly correlated with the discharge energy intensity. As a result, appropriate parametric conditions of the electrical discharge coating process can enhance the NiTi surface for future medical applications, without compromising the shape memory effect.
  13. Njaka S, Edeogu OC, Oko CC, Goni MD, Nkadi N
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e04800.
    PMID: 32964153 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04800
    Background: WPV amongst healthcare workers has been reported as a public health challenge across the countries of the world, with more in the developing countries where condition of care and service is very poor.

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically produce empirical evidence on the WPV against health care workers in Africa through the review of relevant literature.

    Method: We sourced for evidence through the following databases: PubMed, Science direct and Scopus from 30th November to 31st December 2019 as well as the reference list of the studies included. A total of 22 peer reviewed articles were included in the review (8065 respondents). Quality appraisal of the included studies was assessed using critical appraisal tools for cross-sectional studies.

    Result: Across the studies, diverse but high prevalence of WPV ranging from 9% to 100% was reported with the highest in South Africa (54%-100%) and Egypt (59.7%-86.1%). The common types were verbal, physical, sexual harassment and psychological violence. The correlates of WPV reported were gender, age, shift duty, emergency unit, psychiatric unit, nursing, marital status and others. Various impacts were reported including psychological impacts and desire to quit nursing. Patients and their relatives, the coworkers and supervisors were the mostly reported perpetrators of violence. Doctors were mostly implicated in the sexual violence against nurses. Policy on violence and management strategies were non-existent across the studies.

    Conclusion: High prevalence of WPV against healthcare workers exists in Africa but there is still paucity of research on the subject matter. However, urgent measures like policy formulation and others must be taken to address the WPV as to avert the impact on the healthcare system.

  14. Al-Nema M, Gaurav A, Lee VS
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e04856.
    PMID: 32984588 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04856
    Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary disorders, i.e. asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the treatment with non-selective PDE4 inhibitors is associated with side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Among the subtypes of PDE4 inhibited by these inhibitors, PDE4B is expressed in immune, inflammatory and airway smooth muscle cells, whereas, PDE4D is expressed in the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. Thus, PDE4D inhibition is responsible for the emetic response. In this regard, a selective PDE4B inhibitor is expected to be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary disorders. Therefore, a shared feature pharmacophore model was developed and used as a query for the virtual screening of Maybridge and SPECS databases. A number of filters were applied to ensure only compounds with drug-like properties were selected. Accordingly, nine compounds have been identified as final hits, where HTS04529 showed the highest affinity and selectivity for PDE4B over PDE4D in molecular docking. The docked complexes of HTS04529 with PDE4B and PDE4D were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations for 100ns to assess their binding stability. The results showed that HTS04529 was bound tightly to PDE4B and formed a more stable complex with it than with PDE4D.
  15. Rudi NN, Muhamad MS, Te Chuan L, Alipal J, Omar S, Hamidon N, et al.
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e05049.
    PMID: 33033772 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05049
    Manganese has recently been a topic of interest among researchers, particularly when 1,752 million tonnes of manganese are expected to be produced by the steel industry in 2020. Manganese discharges from industrial effluents have increased manganese contamination in water sources. Its concentrations of more than 0.2 mg/L in the water sources could have negative impacts on human health and the aquatic ecosystem. Thereby, the available water treatment processes face challenges in effectively removing manganese at low cost. In response to these challenges, adsorption has emerged as one of the most practical water treatment processes for manganese removal. In particular, agricultural waste adsorbents received a lot of attention owing to their low cost and high efficiency (99%) in the removal of manganese. Therefore, this paper reviews the removal of manganese by adsorption process using agricultural waste adsorbents. The factors affecting the adsorption process, the mechanisms, and the performances of the adsorbents are elucidated in detail.
  16. Nayak SB, Kodimajalu Vasudeva S
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e05014.
    PMID: 32995649 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05014
    Testicular veins are known to show many variations in their origin, course and termination. Some of their variations can lead to male sterility. We report a unique variation of right testicular vein here. Pampiniform plexus reduced to three testicular veins (medial, middle and lateral) at the deep inguinal ring on the right side. The medial vein terminated into the right renal vein, the middle vein terminated into the inferior vena cava above the level of right renal vein (close to the suprarenal gland) and the lateral vein terminated partly into the veins in the capsules of the kidney and partly into the veins under the diaphragm. The medial and middle testicular veins were connected through an oblique communicating vein. The middle and lateral testicular veins were also connected to each other through another oblique communicating vein. Knowledge of this case could be useful to radiologists, nephrologists and surgeons in general.
  17. Ifa L, Yani S, Nurjannah N, Darnengsih D, Rusnaenah A, Mel M, et al.
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e05009.
    PMID: 33005808 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05009
    The implementation of this research consists of 2 (two) aspects: the making and testing of bio-briquettes called technological aspects and economic analysis called economic aspects. Bio-briquettes is made from cashew nutshell waste obtained from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is followed by pyrolysis, which is carried out in a simple batch type reactor by heating using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The bio-briquettes product has a calorific value of 29.49 MJ/kg, moisture content of 5.3%, ash content of 4.96%, volatile substances content of 17.16%, and carbon content of 72.62%, which meets the universally accepted bio-briquettes standard (SNI 016235-2000), Japanese, English and ISO 17225. The bio-briquettes product is suitable as an energy source. The economic analysis of the cashew nutshell was analyzed to determine its economic feasibility. For the bio-briquettes production capacity in 2,000 tons/year, cashew nut shell-briquettes products can be sold at 1,052,878 USD/year. The total production cost is USD842,304/year. The net profit is of USD147,402/year. The cost of LPG for 2,000 tons/year production capacity is USD954,358/years. The replacement of LPG with cashew seed bio-briquettes tends to help the average household of Muna Regency community to reduce the annual cost by 37.00%. In conclusion, bio-briquettes production's economic feasibility as analyzed from the investment rate is 23.55%, payout time is 3.42 years, and break-even point is 50.09%.
  18. Payus CM, Jikilim C, Sentian J
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e04997.
    PMID: 33005801 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04997
    The purposes of this research were to study the characteristics chemistry of pH, anions and cations in rainwater, and to identify the possible sources that contributing to the acid precipitation during southwest monsoon season with occurrence of extreme drought event. During the southwest monsoon season, it normally occurs along with haze phenomenon that every year will hit Southeast Asia. This condition will aggravate with high acidic particles in the atmosphere due to the prolonged drought. The analysed parameters which involved pH, anions (NO3-, SO42- and Cl-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) were analysed using pH meter, Hach DR 2800, argentometric method and ICP-OES. From the findings, it showed that acid rain occurred during the southwest monsoon season with the range of pH values from 4.95 ± 0.13 to 6.40 ± 0.03 and the total average of pH 5.71 ± 0.32. Anions NO3-, SO42- and Cl- were found to be the dominant compositions of the acid rain occurrences with higher concentrations detected. In overall, rural area recorded with higher acidity of precipitation at total average of pH 5.54 ± 0.39 compared to urban area at pH 5.77 ± 0.26. Rural area surprisingly recorded higher frequency occurrences of acid rain with pH lesser than 5.6 and below compared to urban area. As for public health and safety, all rainwater samples during the acid rain event were found exceeded the allowable limits of NWQS and WHO standards, that shown not suitable for skin contact, recreational purposes even for drinking purposes.
  19. Purwanti IF, Obenu A, Tangahu BV, Kurniawan SB, Imron MF, Abdullah SRS
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e05004.
    PMID: 33005804 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05004
    This research analyses the performance of bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of aluminium (Al)-contaminated soil using native Indonesian plants namely, Scirpus grossus and Thypa angustifolia. A range finding test (RFT) was carried out for 14 days to obtain the tolerable Al concentration for both plants. A total of 2% and 5% (v/v) of Vibrio alginolyticus were bioaugmented during the 28-day phytoremediation test to enhance the overall Al removal. Result of the RFT showed that both plants can tolerate up to 500 mg/kg Al concentration. The addition of V. alginolyticus to the reactors resulted in a significant increment of Al removal from the contaminated soil (p < 0.05). Such addition of V. alginolyticus increased the Al removal by up to 14.0% compared with that without-bacteria addition. The highest Al removal was obtained for S. grossus with 5% V. alginolyticus with an efficiency of 35.1% from 500 mg/kg initial concertation. T. angustifolia with 500 mg/kg initial concentration showed the highest removal of 26.2% by the addition of 5% V. alginolyticus. The increase of Al removal by the bioaugmentation of V. alginolyticus was due to the interaction in the plant's rhizosphere. Exudates of both plants provided a good environment for bacteria to live in the root area. Meanwhile, the bacteria increased the bioavailability of Al to be further extracted by plants. Certain mechanisms, such as rhizostabilisation, phytostimulation and phytoextraction, were considered to be the main processes that occurred during the treatment. S. grossus and T. angustifolia displayed promising ability to act as Al hyperaccumulators with bioaccumulation factor values up to 5.308 and 3.068, respectively. Development of the design of the ex-situ soil phytoremediation reactors is suggested as a future research direction because it can significantly enhance the current obtained finding.
  20. Moidu NA, A Rahman NS, Syafruddin SE, Low TY, Mohtar MA
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e05000.
    PMID: 33005802 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05000
    Anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) protein mediates the formation, breakage and isomerization of disulphide bonds during protein maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contributes to the homoeostasis of the secretory pathway. AGR2 promotes tumour development and metastasis and its elevated expression is almost completely restricted to malignant tumours. Interestingly, this supposedly ER-resident protein can be localised to other compartments of cancer cells and can also be secreted into the extracellular milieu. There are emerging evidences that describe the gain-of-function activities of the extracellular AGR2, particularly in cancer development. Here, we reviewed studies detailing the expression, pathological and physiological roles associated with AGR2 and compared the duality of localization, intracellular and extracellular, with special emphasis on the later. We also discussed the possible mechanisms of AGR2 secretion as well as deliberating the functional impacts of AGR2 in cancer settings. Last, we deliberate the current therapeutic strategies and posit the potential use AGR2, as a prognosis and diagnosis marker in cancer.
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