Objectives: We aimed to systematically produce empirical evidence on the WPV against health care workers in Africa through the review of relevant literature.
Method: We sourced for evidence through the following databases: PubMed, Science direct and Scopus from 30th November to 31st December 2019 as well as the reference list of the studies included. A total of 22 peer reviewed articles were included in the review (8065 respondents). Quality appraisal of the included studies was assessed using critical appraisal tools for cross-sectional studies.
Result: Across the studies, diverse but high prevalence of WPV ranging from 9% to 100% was reported with the highest in South Africa (54%-100%) and Egypt (59.7%-86.1%). The common types were verbal, physical, sexual harassment and psychological violence. The correlates of WPV reported were gender, age, shift duty, emergency unit, psychiatric unit, nursing, marital status and others. Various impacts were reported including psychological impacts and desire to quit nursing. Patients and their relatives, the coworkers and supervisors were the mostly reported perpetrators of violence. Doctors were mostly implicated in the sexual violence against nurses. Policy on violence and management strategies were non-existent across the studies.
Conclusion: High prevalence of WPV against healthcare workers exists in Africa but there is still paucity of research on the subject matter. However, urgent measures like policy formulation and others must be taken to address the WPV as to avert the impact on the healthcare system.
Methods: The effects of independent variables (poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration) on various dependent variables (gelling capacity, pH and viscosity) were investigated by using 32 factorial design and organoleptic evaluation was done with descriptive analysis.
Results: The optimized formula of chloramphenicol in situ gel yielded 9 variations of poloxamer 407 and HPMC bases composition in % w/v as follows, F1 (5; 0.45), F2 (7.5; 0.45), F3 (10; 0.45), F4 (5; 0.725), F5 (7.5; 0.725), F6 (10; 0.725), F7 (5; 1), F8 (7.5; 1), F9 (10; 1). The results indicated that the organoleptic, pH, and gelling capacity parameters matched all formulas (F1-F9), however, the viscosity parameter only matched F3, F6, F8, and F9. Based on factorial design, F6 had the best formula with desirability value of 0.54, but the design recommended that formula with the composition bases of poloxamer 407 and HPMC at the ratio of 8.16 % w/v and 0.77 % w/v, respectively, was the optimum formula with a desirability value of 0.69.
Conclusion: All formulas have met the Indonesian pharmacopoeia requirements based on the physical evaluation, especially formula 6 (F6), which was supported by the result of factorial design analysis.
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