Although anionic polyelectrolyte hydrogel beads offer attractive adsorption of cationic dyes, phosphate adsorption is limited by electrostatic interactions. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel beads were modified with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and/or bentonite (Be). The compatibility between CaCO3 and Be was proven by the homogeneous surface, as shown in the scanning electron microscopic images. Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray diffraction spectra further confirmed the existence of inorganic filler in the hydrogel beads. Although CMC/SA/Be/CaCO3 hydrogel beads attained the highest methylene blue and phosphate adsorption capacities (142.15 MB mg/g, 90.31 P mg/g), phosphate adsorption was significantly improved once CaCO3 nanoparticles were incorporated into CMC/SA/CaCO3 hydrogel beads. The kinetics of MB adsorption by CMC/SA hydrogel beads with or without inorganic fillers could be described by the pseudo-second-order model under chemical interactions. The phosphate adsorption by CMC/SA/Be/CaCO3 hydrogel beads could be explained by the Elovich model due to heterogeneous properties. The incorporation of Be and CaCO3 also improved the phosphate adsorption through chemical interaction since Langmuir isotherm fitted the phosphate adsorption by CMC/SA/Be/CaCO3 hydrogel beads. Unlike MB adsorption, the reusability of these hydrogel beads in phosphate adsorption reduced slightly after 5 cycles.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.