Water Sci Technol, 2011;63(5):841-4.
PMID: 21411931 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.102


Rock filters are an established technology for polishing waste stabilization pond effluents. However, they rapidly become anoxic and consequently do not remove ammonium-nitrogen. Horizontal-flow aerated rock filters (HFARF), developed to permit nitrification and hence ammonium-N removal, were compared with a novel vertical-flow aerated rock filter (VFARF). There were no differences in the removals of BOD5, TSS and TKN, but the VFARF consistently produced effluents with lower ammonium-N concentrations (<0.3 mg N/L) than the HFARF (0.8-1.5 mg N/L) and higher nitrate-N concentrations (24-29 mg N/L vs. 17-24 mg N/L).

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