Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 403 in total

  1. Thong KS, Seed HF
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 11;76(6):876-880.
    PMID: 34806676
    INTRODUCTION: The Optimal Health Program (OHP) is a collaborative self-management program that promotes clients to be actively involved in their own healthcare and overall wellbeing. Program Kesihatan Optimum (SANUBARI) is a Malay version of the OHP after a translational process and cultural adaptation by psychiatrists, clinical psychologist and family medicine specialists in 2017. The program is of a low intensity, patient-centred program, advocating self-health management to improve health literacy by enhancing self-efficacy, building strengths and values, and initiating change and planning, ultimately enhancing wellbeing of people. The programme can be used as a form of early psychosocial intervention during the current pandemic in maintaining the general mental wellbeing of COVID-19 patients.

    METHODS: This is an open labelled interventional study of a virtual brief psychosocial intervention, called SANUBARI. The program was conducted among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 wards of two centres from May 2020 until August 2020. Inclusion criteria include patients aged eighteen years and above, diagnosed with COVID-19, medically stable, speaking and reading Bahasa Melayu or English. All study subjects attended two sessions on OHP via telecommunication method and answered questionnaires (General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire) via computer-assisted self-interview. Data collection was done before the start of the intervention, at the end of the intervention and a month post-intervention.

    RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were recruited and more than half of the subjects were males (62.2%), single (75.5%) and from the Malay ethnicity (78.4%). Seventy-three per cent of subjects had received tertiary education, and most of them were students reflecting a higher unemployment status (73%). Most subjects have no comorbid chronic medical illness (89.2%), and none has a comorbid psychiatric illness. Comparison of the GSE score across 3-time points (preintervention, immediate post-intervention and a month postintervention) showed statistically significant improvement in the mean total GSE score immediate and a month postintervention as compared to the pre-intervention; from mean total GSE score of 29.78 pre-intervention to 34.73 (mean difference 4.946, 95% Confidence Interval 95%CI: 3.361, 6.531) immediate post-intervention and 33.08 (mean difference 3.297, 95%CI: 1.211, 5.348) a month post intervention. There was no significant association between the socio-demographic or clinical data, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and changes in GSE scores over three time points.

    CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients improved their self-efficacy levels after the virtual brief OHP intervention, and it maintained a month post-intervention, protecting them from psychological stress and ultimately enhances wellbeing during this coronavirus pandemic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  2. Faudzi AY, Amal NM, Zainal AO, Lailanor I, Sirajuddin H, Taha MA
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):32-5.
    PMID: 23765140 MyJurnal
    A systematic approach to death registration and reporting is essential for studies and comparison within or between countries. One of the accepted methods in the system is to have medically certified death. The objective of this study was to improve the proportion of medically certified death (MCD) in the state of Malacca. Structured questionnaires were used by Medical Assistants (MAs) in the investigation of the cause of death for non-medically certified deaths. Data on certification of death by MAs in Malacca was analysed and compared with the total deaths obtained from the Department of Statistics. Possible determinants of deaths were investigated. Total deaths in the state of Malacca during the study period from 2000 - 2001 were 5941. About 35% (883/2493) of the total deaths in year 2000 and 45% (1550/3448) in 2001 certified by MAs were examined. By districts, 50.6% were certified in the district of Malacca Tengah, 13.4% Jasin and 36.0% Alor Gajah in 2000; 65.9% occurred in Malacca Tengah, 11.0% Jasin and 23.2% Alor Gajah in 2001. This project helped to increase the percentage of the medically certified deaths in Malacca from 49.8% in year 1998, 49% in 1999 to 73% in 2000 and 85% in 2001. The proportion of MCD in Malacca in 2000 (73%) may be increased to 93% if all MCDs done by MAs were accepted by the Department of Statistics. There is still a high proportion (23.6%) of ill-defined conditions such as old age and sudden death being diagnosed by MAs. The study shows that the quality of mortality data particularly in the percentage of medically certified deaths can be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  3. Mustafa S, Darwish M, Bahar A, Aziz ZA
    Ground Water, 2019 09;57(5):756-763.
    PMID: 30740693 DOI: 10.1111/gwat.12868
    Analytical studies for well design adjacent to river banks are the most significant practical task in cases involving the efficiency of riverbank filtration systems. In times when high pollution of river water is joined with increasing water demand, it is necessary to design pumping wells near the river that provide acceptable amounts of river water with minimum contaminant concentrations. This will guarantee the quality and safety of drinking water supplies. This article develops an analytical solution based on the Green's function approach to solve an inverse problem: based on the required level of contaminant concentration and planned pumping time period, the shortest distance to the riverbank that has the maximum percentage of river water is determined. This model is developed in a confined and homogenous aquifer that is partially penetrated by the stream due to the existence of clogging layers. Initially, the analytical results obtained at different pumping times, rates and with different values of initial concentration are checked numerically using the MODFLOW software. Generally, the distance results obtained from the proposed model are acceptable. Then, the model is validated by data related to two pumping wells located at the first riverbank filtration pilot project conducted in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  4. Atiya AS, Anuar Zaini MZ, Khairul Anuar A
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:8-13.
    A pilot study on 250 foreign workers was undertaken during a 7 month period beginning December 1996. The study subjects were mainly males (88.8%). They were selected using non-probability sampling from two sources, that is, from University of Malaya Medical Centre (72.8%) and the PEREMBA group (27.2%). The study was clinic-based. Face-to-face interviews (using a structured questionnaires) were carried out to obtain socio-demographic, environmental, health and morbidity data. Physical examinations were also performed on the same day of the interview. Subjects were also required to give their stools, venous blood and urine specimens for microbiological, parasitological and clinical laboratory investigations. Chest X-Ray was done on all subjects. The other investigators had already reported findings on the various specific areas of their study. In this part of the report attempt was made to relate the infectious diseases to some of the socio-demographic and environmental variables on the 112 Indonesians and 133 Bangladeshi workers. Some aspects of health seeking behaviour of these foreign workers were also presented. Most of the Indonesian workers (84%) were from East Java, Jambi in the Sumatra, while majority of the Bangladeshis were from two neighboring administrative districts of Dhaka and Chittagong. The majority of the Indonesians (50.0%) were working in the service industry, while 53.5% Bangladeshis were in the manufacturing. One-fifth of the workers lived in squatter areas and nearly half of them were working in the service industry. About 70% of the workers had at least one infection. The proportion was slightly higher among the Indonesians (72.3%) compared to the Bangladeshis (67.7%). It is of interest to point out that 40% had multiple infections. Thirteen had five or more infections (details for the two of the thirteen cases are presented as case studies). However, the findings did not indicate any association between sanitation and infections. The Indonesian workers carried a higher risk of transmitting the diseases (33.9%) compared to 19.5% among the Bangladeshi workers. Those working in the construction industry were at a higher risk of transmitting the diseases compared to other industries. Slightly more than half of the workers experienced some form of minor illness or injury during the two week period preceding the interview. Majority sought private care (43.1%), while 42.3% either self-medicate or doing nothing at all. Nearly two-thirds paid out of their own pocket. Among the employers, those in the construction sector made negligible contribution (2.9%) to the payment. It is interesting to find that 41.0% of the workers took some form of health supplements, and the majority (48.4%) got it from the pharmacy or traditional sources. Nearly all (88.5%) paid on their own for their health supplements. The findings from this pilot project need to be interpreted with some caution. However, it appears that the foreign workers do have a considerable amount of health problems. If these are not addressed quickly it may endanger the health of the nation, while we readily acknowledge their contribution towards our national development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  5. Keng SL, Mohd Salleh Sahimi HB, Chan LF, Woon L, Eu CL, Sim SH, et al.
    BMC Psychiatry, 2021 10 04;21(1):486.
    PMID: 34607589 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-021-03500-y
    AIM/BACKGROUND: Even though dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has received substantial empirical support in treating patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), fewer studies have evaluated whether a brief DBT skills group may be effective in improving clinical outcomes in this population. Further, less is known regarding the feasibility and outcomes of DBT beyond Euro-American contexts. This paper describes outcomes from a pilot study examining the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes following completion of a shortened, 14-week DBT skills group in a sample of Muslim-majority BPD patients in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Twenty patients were recruited from a public hospital and attended DBT skills groups in an outpatient clinic. Participants completed measures assessing psychological symptoms, self-harm behaviors, suicidal ideation, emotion regulation difficulties, self-compassion, and well-being pre- and post-intervention.

    RESULTS: There were significant reductions in depressive symptoms, stress, and emotion regulation difficulties, as well as increases in self-compassion and well-being from pre- to post-intervention. A trend was found for decreases in frequency and types of non-suicidal self-harm behaviors, suicidal ideation, and anxiety symptoms. Qualitative content analyses of participants' feedback indicated that the vast majority of participants perceived a positive impact from the skills group, with mindfulness and distress tolerance being rated frequently as skills that were beneficial.

    CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that DBT skills training is feasible and acceptable in a Muslim-majority, low resource clinical setting, and holds promise in improving clinical outcomes among BPD patients in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  6. Woo YL, Khoo SP, Gravitt P, Hawkes D, Rajasuriar R, Saville M
    Curr Oncol, 2022 Oct 02;29(10):7379-7387.
    PMID: 36290856 DOI: 10.3390/curroncol29100579
    Program ROSE (removing obstacles to cervical screening) is a primary HPV-based cervical screening program that incorporates self-sampling and digital technology, ensuring that women are linked to care. It was developed based on the principles of design thinking in the context of Malaysia. The program illustrates the importance of collaborative partnerships and addressing the multi-faceted barriers from policy changes, and infrastructure readiness to the implementation of a radically new cervical screening program in communities. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer requires a monumental and concerted effort in educating both the healthcare providers and the general public. In this short review, we highlight how Pilot Project ROSE incorporated evidence-based tools that rapidly scaled up to Program ROSE. These ideas and solutions can be adapted and adopted by other countries. Notwithstanding the impact of COVID-19, it is incumbent on countries to pave the road towards the elimination of cervical cancer with pre-existing footpaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  7. Qazi A, Raj RG, Tahir M, Waheed M, Waheed M, Khan SU, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:872929.
    PMID: 24711739 DOI: 10.1155/2014/872929
    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  8. Chong HY, Roslani AC, Law CW
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):30-3.
    PMID: 23466763 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) improves outcomes and reduces its incidence. However, population-based screening in Malaysia continues to be a challenge, in view of cost and limited availability of colonoscopic skills and facilities. Conventional qualitative faecal occult blood tests help to prioritize those who require earlier colonoscopies, but cannot distinguish between benign and malignant causes. Recently, quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood tests (qFOBT) have demonstrated some discriminatory ability in distinguishing benign and malignant causes. We aim to assess feasibility of qFOBT as a tool for stratification of colonoscopic priority in asymptomatic patients.
    METHODS: A health awareness exhibition was held in a major shopping complex in Kuala Lumpur on 6 and 7 Feb 2010. All asymptomatic individuals> 40 years, and those < 40 with family history of CRC, were invited to participate. Eligible participants were given a questionnaire and screened using a qFOBT. A faecal haemoglobin level of 100 - 199 ng/mL was considered moderately positive, while a level of 200 ng/mL or more was strongly positive. Participants with a strongly positive qFOBT result were scheduled for a colonoscopy within the month, while those who were moderately positive were scheduled within 3 months.
    RESULTS: A total of 125 (82%) participants returned the qFOBT kit, of which 70 (56%) were male. The median age was 54 years. Majority of the participants were Chinese (60%), followed by Malay (25%), Indian (12%) and others (3%). Twelve (10%) participants were tested positive and were advised to undergo colonoscopy but 9 (75%) declined colonoscopy and further investigations citing lack of time as the reason. Of the 3 participants (all in the moderately positive group) who underwent colonoscopy, 2 had a family history of CRC. Colonoscopic findings revealed haemorrhoids in one participant and two participants had histologically proven benign sigmoid colonic polyps.
    CONCLUSION: The use of qFOBT as a tool to screen and prioritize asymptomatic patients for early colonoscopy in CRC screening is logistically feasible. However, in order for it to be effective, measures to improve compliance to colonoscopy need to be taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  9. Nur Saadah Mohamad Aun, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):23-30.
    Accepted 23 August 2011.
    Introduction There is a strong correlation between stress and the quality of care provided by informal carers. In this regard, an accurate understanding about factors
    contributing to stress among informal carers is crucial in order to find appropriate interventions to solve their problems.
    Methods A pilot study was conducted in October 2009 in the Klang Valley area, to test the instrument liability in the local context. In-depth interviews were conducted with two informal caregivers who are providing full-time care for their chronically-ill family members.
    Results Informal caregivers face multiple types of stress. A variety of factors such as financial problems, an unsupportive community, fatigue, the unavailability of social services to assist them and their inability to accept the fact that their loved ones are terminally ill, contribute to their stress.
    Conclusions Differences in factors contribute to stress, and lead to the adoption of different styles of coping strategies: emotion and problem focused coping.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  10. Van Dort, Sandra, Vong, Etain, Rogayah A. Razak, Rahayu Mustaffa Kamal, Hooi, Poh Meng
    This paper aims to describe a Malay version of the Boston Naming Test (MBNT) and its normative data. The M-BNT follows closely the general administration procedures of the original Boston Naming Test (BNT) but is different in terms of item content. A total of 29 items from the original 60 items on the test were deemed culturally and linguistically valid for the Malay population and were thus retained. A total of 41 additional items were added to make a total list of 70 items for pilot testing. These items were first vetted by a panel of experts and then trialed on a sample of 40 Malay adults. Based on the item analysis from the pilot study, the M-BNT was reduced to a 50 item test. This was administered to 230 normal Malay subjects in five age groups (20 - 29 years, 30 - 39 years, 40 - 49 years, 50 - 59 years, and 60 - 69 years), split into two main educational levels (i.e. < 12 years of education, and 12 years or more) and across gender. The Malay subjects were chosen representative of the four major geographical regions in West Malaysia. Initial normative data was computed according to the five age groups and two educational levels. It is hoped that the M-BNT will become a test useful in the identification of patients with an expressive language word-finding disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  11. Nur Syafiqah Abdul Malik, Adekunle Qudus Adeleke
    This paper assessed the significant relationship between organizational culture and
    material risk among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. Survey was
    conducted among 10 registered G7 contractors operating in Kuantan construction
    industry. Proportionate stratified random sampling was used out of which 10
    questionnaires were distributed for pilot study. Methodologically, this research is
    perhaps the first to assess the relationship between organizational culture and
    material risk among Malaysian construction industries with five point Likert scale
    categories of material risk from previous studies. Statistical analysis affirmed a
    significant positive relationship between organizational culture and material risk
    among Malaysian construction industries through Statistical Package for Social
    Sciences (SPSS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  12. Tan SK, Tang ATH, Leung WK, Zwahlen RA
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2018 Dec;119(6):461-468.
    PMID: 30099221 DOI: 10.1016/j.jormas.2018.07.004
    PURPOSE: To investigate short- and long-term post-surgical three-dimensional changes of pharyngeal airway morphology and hyoid bone position in dento-skeletal class II deformity patients after two-jaw surgery with segmentation.

    METHODS: Relations between skeletal movement, hyoid bone position and three-dimensional pharyngeal airway changes were retrospectively analyzed on pre- and post-surgical CBCTs in dento-skeletal class II patients who underwent orthognathic two-jaw surgery with segmentation.

    RESULTS: While long-term significant reductions in length (P= 0.003), surface area (P= 0.042) and volume (P= 0.004) were found in the nasopharynx, the highly significant increases in oropharyngeal airway length, surface area, volume and the minimal cross-sectional area (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  13. Radin Umar RZ, Ahmad N, Halim I, Lee PY, Hamid M
    Saf Health Work, 2019 Sep;10(3):327-335.
    PMID: 31497329 DOI: 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.06.006
    Background: There have been some concerns related to manual handling of large items in industry. Manual handling operations of large sheet metal may expose workers to risks related to efficiency as well as occupational safety and health. Large sheet metals are difficult to move and burdensome to lift/transfer, and handling the sharp sheet edges may result in contact stress and/or cut injuries on the workers.

    Methods: Through observation, interview, and immersive simulation activities, a few problems related to current handling of sheet metals were identified. A sheet metal trolley-lifter was then designed and fabricated to address these issues. A pilot study on the use of the developed trolley-lifter for handling sheet metals was conducted to compare between the new and traditional handling methods.

    Results: The pilot study of the trolley-lifter showed promising results in terms of improving the cycle time, manpower utilization, and working postures compared with the traditional handling method.

    Conclusion: The trolley-lifter offers an alternative solution to automation and a mechanized assistive device by providing a simple mechanism to assist the handling of sheet metals effectively and safely.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  14. Ejria Saleh, Gallagher, John Barry, Tzuen, Kiat Yap
    Seagrasses provide a range of marine ecosystem services. These include coastal protection, biodiversity, provision of food for various organisms, breeding and nursery habitats for many marine species, and carbon storage. Increasing anthropogenic pressures have contributed to the decline of seagrass habitats. Transplantation is one of the solutions to increase seagrass coverage and resilience. What is often overlooked, however, is the ability of this tropical ecosystem to attract and support faunal assemblages that may impinge on the success of the transplantation. A pilot study on seagrass transplantation at Gaya Island (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah) was intended for observing its stability and species of fauna that develop association with this vegetation. The study covered the southwest and northeast monsoons. Mixed seagrass species were planted on approximately 50% of 30 m 2 transplantation areas. Monitoring of the planted seagrass was carried out in five phases (T1-T5) from September 2016 to April 2018. Weekly observations were made by SCUBA diving. Identification of associated fauna was done on the spot and was based on morphological characteristics. During the T1 (September to December 2016) the seagrass coverage was reduced to 41% due to strong waves generated by the northeast monsoon. However, the seagrass coverage increased ( 66 %) during the southwest monsoon (T2 - T4) in 2017. In early 2018 (T5), the seagrass coverage again reduced (about 18%) due to strong waves but recovered again at the end of the monitoring period (April 2018). A total of 30 species of fauna that were identified consisted of 9 resident and 21 non-resident species. Physical structure of transplanted seagrass created a microhabitat, and increased the food availability and abundance, which attracted many species of different trophic levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  15. Wong JJM, Lee SW, Tan HL, Ma YJ, Sultana R, Mok YH, et al.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med, 2020 08;21(8):720-728.
    PMID: 32205663 DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002324
    OBJECTIVES: Reduced morbidity and mortality associated with lung-protective mechanical ventilation is not proven in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aims to determine if a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with improved clinical outcomes.

    DESIGN: This pilot study over April 2016 to September 2019 adopts a before-and-after comparison design of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol. All admissions to the PICU were screened daily for fulfillment of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference criteria and included.

    SETTING: Multidisciplinary PICU.

    PATIENTS: Patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    INTERVENTIONS: Lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol with elements on peak pressures, tidal volumes, end-expiratory pressure to FIO2 combinations, permissive hypercapnia, and permissive hypoxemia.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ventilator and blood gas data were collected for the first 7 days of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and compared between the protocol (n = 63) and nonprotocol groups (n = 69). After implementation of the protocol, median tidal volume (6.4 mL/kg [5.4-7.8 mL/kg] vs 6.0 mL/kg [4.8-7.3 mL/kg]; p = 0.005), PaO2 (78.1 mm Hg [67.0-94.6 mm Hg] vs 74.5 mm Hg [59.2-91.1 mm Hg]; p = 0.001), and oxygen saturation (97% [95-99%] vs 96% [94-98%]; p = 0.007) were lower, and end-expiratory pressure (8 cm H2O [7-9 cm H2O] vs 8 cm H2O [8-10 cm H2O]; p = 0.002] and PaCO2 (44.9 mm Hg [38.8-53.1 mm Hg] vs 46.4 mm Hg [39.4-56.7 mm Hg]; p = 0.033) were higher, in keeping with lung protective measures. There was no difference in mortality (10/63 [15.9%] vs 18/69 [26.1%]; p = 0.152), ventilator-free days (16.0 [2.0-23.0] vs 19.0 [0.0-23.0]; p = 0.697), and PICU-free days (13.0 [0.0-21.0] vs 16.0 [0.0-22.0]; p = 0.233) between the protocol and nonprotocol groups. After adjusting for severity of illness, organ dysfunction and oxygenation index, the lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol was associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.88).

    CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol improved adherence to lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies and potentially mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  16. Tan CY, Chuah CQ, Lee ST, Tan CS
    PMID: 34299693 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18147244
    The impact of happiness on creativity is well-established. However, little is known about the effect of creativity on well-being. Two studies were thus conducted to examine the impact of creativity on subjective well-being. In the first study, 256 undergraduate students (Study 1a) and 291 working adults (Study 1b) self-reported their creativity, stress, and subjective well-being. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship between creativity and subjective well-being after controlling the effect of self-perceived stress and demographics in both samples. Study 2 then employed an experimental design to examine the causal relationship between creativity and subjective well-being. Half of the 68 undergraduates underwent a creativity priming task followed by a divergent thinking test as well as self-reported stress and subjective well-being. The priming task was found to boost creative performance in the pilot study (Study 2a) and the actual study (Study 2b). Moreover, after controlling the effect of self-perceived stress, ANCOVA analysis showed that participants receiving the priming reported higher subjective well-being scores than their counterparts in the control group. The overall findings not only shed light on the facilitative effect of creativity on subjective well-being but also highlight the necessity of considering the reciprocal relationship of the two constructs in future research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  17. Chandrasekaran S, Ramli N, Ahmad MJ, Effendi I, Amir NN, Chow RC, et al.
    J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol, 2021 08;10(4):425-431.
    PMID: 32996803 DOI: 10.1089/jayao.2020.0064
    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) demonstrate features of premature aging in a multitude of organ systems. The aim of this pilot study is to determine the presence of premature ocular aging features in CCS, specifically childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. Methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted over a period of 21 months, starting July 2015 till March 2017. A total of 59 childhood ALL survivors who attended the Paediatric Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and 48 age, race, and gender-matched controls went through a series of ocular examinations and tests. Inclusion criteria used to recruit survivors were age above 16 years, history of ALL in childhood, completion of treatment for ALL, and a remission period of at least 5 years. Patients with ocular disease and those who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were excluded. The parameters measured were visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation, pupil cycle time (PCT), and tear break-up time (TBUT). Results: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrated significant differences in amplitude of accommodation, PCT, and TBUT compared to age-matched controls. Survivors had a lower median (interquartile range [IQR]) amplitude of accommodation compared to controls (11.0 D [9.0-13.0] vs. 12.0 D [10.5-15]; p = 0.045). Survivors also showed a longer median (IQR) PCT in comparison to controls (931.00 mseconds (857.00-1063.00) vs. 875.50 mseconds (825.75-966.00); p = 0.024). In addition, median (IQR) TBUT was worse in survivors in comparison to the control group (9 seconds [6-13] vs. 11 seconds [10-15]; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Survivors of childhood ALL demonstrate premature ocular aging features compared to age-matched controls. Thus, survivors may benefit from having ocular examinations as part of their routine late-effects screening to detect age-related ocular morbidities early in its course.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  18. Chung KJ, Chin YM, Wong MS, Sanmugam A, Singaravel S, Nah SA
    J Pediatr Surg, 2022 Feb;57(2):261-265.
    PMID: 34838305 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.10.032
    BACKGROUND: Umbilical granuloma is a common infantile condition which usually responds to non operative management. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) is often used as chemical cauterization but can cause superficial skin burns. An alternative is table salt (NaCl), which osmotically dehydrates wet granulation tissue causing necrosis. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of NaCl versus CuSO4 in treating umbilical granuloma.

    METHOD: We performed a multi centerrandomized controlled trial involving three regional pediatricsurgical units. We included children who presented with umbilical granuloma from December 2018 to May 2020. Children who received treatment prior to index visit were excluded. They were randomly allocated to receive NaCl (twice/day application for 5 days by caregiver) or CuSO4 (single application by clinician). Demographic data, compliance in the NaCl group by pill counting method, treatment outcomes, and complications were recorded. Treatment success was defined as complete lesion resolution. Partial or no response was considered treatment failure. Subsequent treatment then reverted to the respective center's routine management.

    RESULT: We recruited 70 participants with 6 dropouts (2 defaulters, 1 vitellointestinal duct, 3 urachal remnants), leaving 64 subjects for final analysis: 31 NaCl, 33 CuSO4. Compliance rate of 77.4% was recorded for NaCl, with 6 (20%) 'poor compliance' participants stopping therapy before completion owing to complete resolution. NaCl group had a significantly higher complete resolution rate (90.4%) compared to CuSO4 (69.7%), p = 0.040. No NaCl participant developed complications versus 9% (n = 3) in CuSO4 (periumbilical superficial skin burn).

    CONCLUSION: Table salt is an ideal treatment choice for umbilical granuloma as it is effective, safe, and readily available.


    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  19. Zulkeflee Z, Sánchez A
    Water Sci Technol, 2014;70(6):1032-9.
    PMID: 25259492 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.329
    An innovative approach using soybean residues for the production of bioflocculants through solid-state fermentation was carried out in 4.5 L near-to-adiabatic bioreactors at pilot-scale level. An added inoculum of the strain Bacillus subtilis UPMB13 was tested in comparison with control reactors without any inoculation after the thermophilic phase of the fermentation. The flocculating performances of the extracted bioflocculants were tested on kaolin suspensions, and crude bioflocculants were obtained from 20 g of fermented substrate through ethanol precipitation. The production of bioflocculants was observed to be higher during the death phase of microbial growth. The bioflocculants were observed to be granular in nature and consisted of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups that aid in their flocculating performance. The results show the vast potential of the idea of using wastes to produce bioactive materials that can replace the current dependence on chemicals, for future prospect in water treatment applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  20. Chew KS, Mohd Hashairi F, Jusoh AF, Aziz AA, Nik Hisamuddin NAR, Siti Asma H
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Aug;68(4):323-5.
    PMID: 24145260 MyJurnal
    Although a vital test, blood culture is often plagued with the problem of contamination and false results, especially in a chaotic emergency department setting. The objectives of this pilot study is to find out the level of understanding among healthcare staffs in emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) regarding good blood culture sampling practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
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