Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 372 in total

  1. Faudzi AY, Amal NM, Zainal AO, Lailanor I, Sirajuddin H, Taha MA
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):32-5.
    PMID: 23765140 MyJurnal
    A systematic approach to death registration and reporting is essential for studies and comparison within or between countries. One of the accepted methods in the system is to have medically certified death. The objective of this study was to improve the proportion of medically certified death (MCD) in the state of Malacca. Structured questionnaires were used by Medical Assistants (MAs) in the investigation of the cause of death for non-medically certified deaths. Data on certification of death by MAs in Malacca was analysed and compared with the total deaths obtained from the Department of Statistics. Possible determinants of deaths were investigated. Total deaths in the state of Malacca during the study period from 2000 - 2001 were 5941. About 35% (883/2493) of the total deaths in year 2000 and 45% (1550/3448) in 2001 certified by MAs were examined. By districts, 50.6% were certified in the district of Malacca Tengah, 13.4% Jasin and 36.0% Alor Gajah in 2000; 65.9% occurred in Malacca Tengah, 11.0% Jasin and 23.2% Alor Gajah in 2001. This project helped to increase the percentage of the medically certified deaths in Malacca from 49.8% in year 1998, 49% in 1999 to 73% in 2000 and 85% in 2001. The proportion of MCD in Malacca in 2000 (73%) may be increased to 93% if all MCDs done by MAs were accepted by the Department of Statistics. There is still a high proportion (23.6%) of ill-defined conditions such as old age and sudden death being diagnosed by MAs. The study shows that the quality of mortality data particularly in the percentage of medically certified deaths can be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  2. Mustafa S, Darwish M, Bahar A, Aziz ZA
    Ground Water, 2019 09;57(5):756-763.
    PMID: 30740693 DOI: 10.1111/gwat.12868
    Analytical studies for well design adjacent to river banks are the most significant practical task in cases involving the efficiency of riverbank filtration systems. In times when high pollution of river water is joined with increasing water demand, it is necessary to design pumping wells near the river that provide acceptable amounts of river water with minimum contaminant concentrations. This will guarantee the quality and safety of drinking water supplies. This article develops an analytical solution based on the Green's function approach to solve an inverse problem: based on the required level of contaminant concentration and planned pumping time period, the shortest distance to the riverbank that has the maximum percentage of river water is determined. This model is developed in a confined and homogenous aquifer that is partially penetrated by the stream due to the existence of clogging layers. Initially, the analytical results obtained at different pumping times, rates and with different values of initial concentration are checked numerically using the MODFLOW software. Generally, the distance results obtained from the proposed model are acceptable. Then, the model is validated by data related to two pumping wells located at the first riverbank filtration pilot project conducted in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  3. Atiya AS, Anuar Zaini MZ, Khairul Anuar A
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:8-13.
    A pilot study on 250 foreign workers was undertaken during a 7 month period beginning December 1996. The study subjects were mainly males (88.8%). They were selected using non-probability sampling from two sources, that is, from University of Malaya Medical Centre (72.8%) and the PEREMBA group (27.2%). The study was clinic-based. Face-to-face interviews (using a structured questionnaires) were carried out to obtain socio-demographic, environmental, health and morbidity data. Physical examinations were also performed on the same day of the interview. Subjects were also required to give their stools, venous blood and urine specimens for microbiological, parasitological and clinical laboratory investigations. Chest X-Ray was done on all subjects. The other investigators had already reported findings on the various specific areas of their study. In this part of the report attempt was made to relate the infectious diseases to some of the socio-demographic and environmental variables on the 112 Indonesians and 133 Bangladeshi workers. Some aspects of health seeking behaviour of these foreign workers were also presented. Most of the Indonesian workers (84%) were from East Java, Jambi in the Sumatra, while majority of the Bangladeshis were from two neighboring administrative districts of Dhaka and Chittagong. The majority of the Indonesians (50.0%) were working in the service industry, while 53.5% Bangladeshis were in the manufacturing. One-fifth of the workers lived in squatter areas and nearly half of them were working in the service industry. About 70% of the workers had at least one infection. The proportion was slightly higher among the Indonesians (72.3%) compared to the Bangladeshis (67.7%). It is of interest to point out that 40% had multiple infections. Thirteen had five or more infections (details for the two of the thirteen cases are presented as case studies). However, the findings did not indicate any association between sanitation and infections. The Indonesian workers carried a higher risk of transmitting the diseases (33.9%) compared to 19.5% among the Bangladeshi workers. Those working in the construction industry were at a higher risk of transmitting the diseases compared to other industries. Slightly more than half of the workers experienced some form of minor illness or injury during the two week period preceding the interview. Majority sought private care (43.1%), while 42.3% either self-medicate or doing nothing at all. Nearly two-thirds paid out of their own pocket. Among the employers, those in the construction sector made negligible contribution (2.9%) to the payment. It is interesting to find that 41.0% of the workers took some form of health supplements, and the majority (48.4%) got it from the pharmacy or traditional sources. Nearly all (88.5%) paid on their own for their health supplements. The findings from this pilot project need to be interpreted with some caution. However, it appears that the foreign workers do have a considerable amount of health problems. If these are not addressed quickly it may endanger the health of the nation, while we readily acknowledge their contribution towards our national development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  4. Qazi A, Raj RG, Tahir M, Waheed M, Waheed M, Khan SU, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:872929.
    PMID: 24711739 DOI: 10.1155/2014/872929
    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  5. Chong HY, Roslani AC, Law CW
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):30-3.
    PMID: 23466763 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) improves outcomes and reduces its incidence. However, population-based screening in Malaysia continues to be a challenge, in view of cost and limited availability of colonoscopic skills and facilities. Conventional qualitative faecal occult blood tests help to prioritize those who require earlier colonoscopies, but cannot distinguish between benign and malignant causes. Recently, quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood tests (qFOBT) have demonstrated some discriminatory ability in distinguishing benign and malignant causes. We aim to assess feasibility of qFOBT as a tool for stratification of colonoscopic priority in asymptomatic patients.
    METHODS: A health awareness exhibition was held in a major shopping complex in Kuala Lumpur on 6 and 7 Feb 2010. All asymptomatic individuals> 40 years, and those < 40 with family history of CRC, were invited to participate. Eligible participants were given a questionnaire and screened using a qFOBT. A faecal haemoglobin level of 100 - 199 ng/mL was considered moderately positive, while a level of 200 ng/mL or more was strongly positive. Participants with a strongly positive qFOBT result were scheduled for a colonoscopy within the month, while those who were moderately positive were scheduled within 3 months.
    RESULTS: A total of 125 (82%) participants returned the qFOBT kit, of which 70 (56%) were male. The median age was 54 years. Majority of the participants were Chinese (60%), followed by Malay (25%), Indian (12%) and others (3%). Twelve (10%) participants were tested positive and were advised to undergo colonoscopy but 9 (75%) declined colonoscopy and further investigations citing lack of time as the reason. Of the 3 participants (all in the moderately positive group) who underwent colonoscopy, 2 had a family history of CRC. Colonoscopic findings revealed haemorrhoids in one participant and two participants had histologically proven benign sigmoid colonic polyps.
    CONCLUSION: The use of qFOBT as a tool to screen and prioritize asymptomatic patients for early colonoscopy in CRC screening is logistically feasible. However, in order for it to be effective, measures to improve compliance to colonoscopy need to be taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  6. Nur Saadah Mohamad Aun, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):23-30.
    Accepted 23 August 2011.
    Introduction There is a strong correlation between stress and the quality of care provided by informal carers. In this regard, an accurate understanding about factors
    contributing to stress among informal carers is crucial in order to find appropriate interventions to solve their problems.
    Methods A pilot study was conducted in October 2009 in the Klang Valley area, to test the instrument liability in the local context. In-depth interviews were conducted with two informal caregivers who are providing full-time care for their chronically-ill family members.
    Results Informal caregivers face multiple types of stress. A variety of factors such as financial problems, an unsupportive community, fatigue, the unavailability of social services to assist them and their inability to accept the fact that their loved ones are terminally ill, contribute to their stress.
    Conclusions Differences in factors contribute to stress, and lead to the adoption of different styles of coping strategies: emotion and problem focused coping.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  7. Van Dort, Sandra, Vong, Etain, Rogayah A. Razak, Rahayu Mustaffa Kamal, Hooi, Poh Meng
    This paper aims to describe a Malay version of the Boston Naming Test (MBNT) and its normative data. The M-BNT follows closely the general administration procedures of the original Boston Naming Test (BNT) but is different in terms of item content. A total of 29 items from the original 60 items on the test were deemed culturally and linguistically valid for the Malay population and were thus retained. A total of 41 additional items were added to make a total list of 70 items for pilot testing. These items were first vetted by a panel of experts and then trialed on a sample of 40 Malay adults. Based on the item analysis from the pilot study, the M-BNT was reduced to a 50 item test. This was administered to 230 normal Malay subjects in five age groups (20 - 29 years, 30 - 39 years, 40 - 49 years, 50 - 59 years, and 60 - 69 years), split into two main educational levels (i.e. < 12 years of education, and 12 years or more) and across gender. The Malay subjects were chosen representative of the four major geographical regions in West Malaysia. Initial normative data was computed according to the five age groups and two educational levels. It is hoped that the M-BNT will become a test useful in the identification of patients with an expressive language word-finding disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  8. Nur Syafiqah Abdul Malik, Adekunle Qudus Adeleke
    This paper assessed the significant relationship between organizational culture and
    material risk among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. Survey was
    conducted among 10 registered G7 contractors operating in Kuantan construction
    industry. Proportionate stratified random sampling was used out of which 10
    questionnaires were distributed for pilot study. Methodologically, this research is
    perhaps the first to assess the relationship between organizational culture and
    material risk among Malaysian construction industries with five point Likert scale
    categories of material risk from previous studies. Statistical analysis affirmed a
    significant positive relationship between organizational culture and material risk
    among Malaysian construction industries through Statistical Package for Social
    Sciences (SPSS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  9. Tan SK, Tang ATH, Leung WK, Zwahlen RA
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2018 Dec;119(6):461-468.
    PMID: 30099221 DOI: 10.1016/j.jormas.2018.07.004
    PURPOSE: To investigate short- and long-term post-surgical three-dimensional changes of pharyngeal airway morphology and hyoid bone position in dento-skeletal class II deformity patients after two-jaw surgery with segmentation.

    METHODS: Relations between skeletal movement, hyoid bone position and three-dimensional pharyngeal airway changes were retrospectively analyzed on pre- and post-surgical CBCTs in dento-skeletal class II patients who underwent orthognathic two-jaw surgery with segmentation.

    RESULTS: While long-term significant reductions in length (P= 0.003), surface area (P= 0.042) and volume (P= 0.004) were found in the nasopharynx, the highly significant increases in oropharyngeal airway length, surface area, volume and the minimal cross-sectional area (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  10. Radin Umar RZ, Ahmad N, Halim I, Lee PY, Hamid M
    Saf Health Work, 2019 Sep;10(3):327-335.
    PMID: 31497329 DOI: 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.06.006
    Background: There have been some concerns related to manual handling of large items in industry. Manual handling operations of large sheet metal may expose workers to risks related to efficiency as well as occupational safety and health. Large sheet metals are difficult to move and burdensome to lift/transfer, and handling the sharp sheet edges may result in contact stress and/or cut injuries on the workers.

    Methods: Through observation, interview, and immersive simulation activities, a few problems related to current handling of sheet metals were identified. A sheet metal trolley-lifter was then designed and fabricated to address these issues. A pilot study on the use of the developed trolley-lifter for handling sheet metals was conducted to compare between the new and traditional handling methods.

    Results: The pilot study of the trolley-lifter showed promising results in terms of improving the cycle time, manpower utilization, and working postures compared with the traditional handling method.

    Conclusion: The trolley-lifter offers an alternative solution to automation and a mechanized assistive device by providing a simple mechanism to assist the handling of sheet metals effectively and safely.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  11. Wong JJM, Lee SW, Tan HL, Ma YJ, Sultana R, Mok YH, et al.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med, 2020 08;21(8):720-728.
    PMID: 32205663 DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002324
    OBJECTIVES: Reduced morbidity and mortality associated with lung-protective mechanical ventilation is not proven in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aims to determine if a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with improved clinical outcomes.

    DESIGN: This pilot study over April 2016 to September 2019 adopts a before-and-after comparison design of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol. All admissions to the PICU were screened daily for fulfillment of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference criteria and included.

    SETTING: Multidisciplinary PICU.

    PATIENTS: Patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    INTERVENTIONS: Lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol with elements on peak pressures, tidal volumes, end-expiratory pressure to FIO2 combinations, permissive hypercapnia, and permissive hypoxemia.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ventilator and blood gas data were collected for the first 7 days of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and compared between the protocol (n = 63) and nonprotocol groups (n = 69). After implementation of the protocol, median tidal volume (6.4 mL/kg [5.4-7.8 mL/kg] vs 6.0 mL/kg [4.8-7.3 mL/kg]; p = 0.005), PaO2 (78.1 mm Hg [67.0-94.6 mm Hg] vs 74.5 mm Hg [59.2-91.1 mm Hg]; p = 0.001), and oxygen saturation (97% [95-99%] vs 96% [94-98%]; p = 0.007) were lower, and end-expiratory pressure (8 cm H2O [7-9 cm H2O] vs 8 cm H2O [8-10 cm H2O]; p = 0.002] and PaCO2 (44.9 mm Hg [38.8-53.1 mm Hg] vs 46.4 mm Hg [39.4-56.7 mm Hg]; p = 0.033) were higher, in keeping with lung protective measures. There was no difference in mortality (10/63 [15.9%] vs 18/69 [26.1%]; p = 0.152), ventilator-free days (16.0 [2.0-23.0] vs 19.0 [0.0-23.0]; p = 0.697), and PICU-free days (13.0 [0.0-21.0] vs 16.0 [0.0-22.0]; p = 0.233) between the protocol and nonprotocol groups. After adjusting for severity of illness, organ dysfunction and oxygenation index, the lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol was associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.88).

    CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol improved adherence to lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies and potentially mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  12. Ejria Saleh, Gallagher, John Barry, Tzuen, Kiat Yap
    Seagrasses provide a range of marine ecosystem services. These include coastal protection, biodiversity, provision of food for various organisms, breeding and nursery habitats for many marine species, and carbon storage. Increasing anthropogenic pressures have contributed to the decline of seagrass habitats. Transplantation is one of the solutions to increase seagrass coverage and resilience. What is often overlooked, however, is the ability of this tropical ecosystem to attract and support faunal assemblages that may impinge on the success of the transplantation. A pilot study on seagrass transplantation at Gaya Island (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah) was intended for observing its stability and species of fauna that develop association with this vegetation. The study covered the southwest and northeast monsoons. Mixed seagrass species were planted on approximately 50% of 30 m 2 transplantation areas. Monitoring of the planted seagrass was carried out in five phases (T1-T5) from September 2016 to April 2018. Weekly observations were made by SCUBA diving. Identification of associated fauna was done on the spot and was based on morphological characteristics. During the T1 (September to December 2016) the seagrass coverage was reduced to 41% due to strong waves generated by the northeast monsoon. However, the seagrass coverage increased ( 66 %) during the southwest monsoon (T2 - T4) in 2017. In early 2018 (T5), the seagrass coverage again reduced (about 18%) due to strong waves but recovered again at the end of the monitoring period (April 2018). A total of 30 species of fauna that were identified consisted of 9 resident and 21 non-resident species. Physical structure of transplanted seagrass created a microhabitat, and increased the food availability and abundance, which attracted many species of different trophic levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  13. Zulkeflee Z, Sánchez A
    Water Sci Technol, 2014;70(6):1032-9.
    PMID: 25259492 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.329
    An innovative approach using soybean residues for the production of bioflocculants through solid-state fermentation was carried out in 4.5 L near-to-adiabatic bioreactors at pilot-scale level. An added inoculum of the strain Bacillus subtilis UPMB13 was tested in comparison with control reactors without any inoculation after the thermophilic phase of the fermentation. The flocculating performances of the extracted bioflocculants were tested on kaolin suspensions, and crude bioflocculants were obtained from 20 g of fermented substrate through ethanol precipitation. The production of bioflocculants was observed to be higher during the death phase of microbial growth. The bioflocculants were observed to be granular in nature and consisted of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups that aid in their flocculating performance. The results show the vast potential of the idea of using wastes to produce bioactive materials that can replace the current dependence on chemicals, for future prospect in water treatment applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  14. Chew KS, Mohd Hashairi F, Jusoh AF, Aziz AA, Nik Hisamuddin NAR, Siti Asma H
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Aug;68(4):323-5.
    PMID: 24145260 MyJurnal
    Although a vital test, blood culture is often plagued with the problem of contamination and false results, especially in a chaotic emergency department setting. The objectives of this pilot study is to find out the level of understanding among healthcare staffs in emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) regarding good blood culture sampling practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  15. Hoque ME, Zainal NH, Syarif J
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:91-2.
    PMID: 19024999
    This study aims at investigating the mechanical properties of the contemporary metallic bone plates determining the effect of their length, width and thickness on the properties and compares with the composite bone plates. Three-points bending test was performed over the stainless steel plates of different length, width and thickness. The test results showed that different plates had different mechanical properties. However, the properties are still much higher than that of particular bones intended to be treated. Therefore, the reported findings strongly encourage developing composite bone plates with biocompatible polymers/fibers that would have modulated properties according to the requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  16. Mutalib HA, Kaur S, Ghazali AR, Chinn Hooi N, Safie NH
    PMID: 25802534 DOI: 10.1155/2015/135987
    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  17. Mahmood WA, Watson CJ, Ogden AR, Hawkins RV
    Int J Prosthodont, 1992 Jul-Aug;5(4):359-66.
    PMID: 1520458
    Image analysis was used to determine masticatory efficiency and performance before and after placement of immediate dentures. Sections of cored carrot were used as the test food and the particle size of chewed expectorated food was measured using image analysis. Measurements were shown to be accurate and reproducible. Masticatory function of immediate-denture patients was also compared with a similar number of dentate individuals and experienced complete-denture wearers. Dentate subjects were significantly (P less than .01) more efficient at masticating the test food than were the complete- or immediate-denture wearers. The new method of measurement removes the necessity for the unpleasant and unhygienic sieving process previously used in this type of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  18. Valyasevi A, Dhanamitta S
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Mar;41(1):53-8.
    PMID: 3796351
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  19. Jaafar, N., Saub, R., Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 1997;4(1):9-12.
    A pilot study was conducted on 135 sixteen-year-old students from three rural schools in Kelantan to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and discomfort. About 44% reported to have experienced some oro-facial pain in the preceding four weeks. About 27% of those with pain, still experienced the pain at the time of clinical examination but only 8% have consulted professional help. Most of the pain encountered were only mild or moderate in nature. Only 7% and 10% respectively, reported that the pain affected their sleep and concentration to study. The main cause was toothache and sensitivity. The prevalence of discomfort was 22%, the most common causes being recurrent oral ulcers and bleeding gums. The impacts of orofacial pain was mainly manifested at the personal level, and very few affecting social functioning. However, untreated decay and missing teeth were very low (mean DT 0.47, mean MT 0.27), while filled teeth (mean Ff 2.9) was the main component of the DMFf (mean 3.66, sd ± 2.6). Severe periodontal disease and the prevalence of traumatised teeth was not a major public health problem. The high prevalence of pain merit further research. Therefore a larger study involving other age-groups in other states is planned.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
  20. Rozhan, S., Jamsiah, M., Rahimah, A., Ang, K.T.
    Background: The COMBI concept is a novel approach by the WHO to control communicable diseases which are influenced by community behaviour. The Ministry of Health is currently evaluating its use against dengue in selected areas throughout Malaysia. COMBI doctrine differs from previous dengue campaigns. It acknowledges that the factors contributing to dengue proliferation may differ between areas. Factors for a given area are analysed, then a single precise behavioural goal to overcome those problems is formulated. To inculcate this behavioural change, the target community is subjected to an intensive campaign using Integrated Marketing Communication techniques adapted from the advertisingindustry, particularly involving volunteers from the community itself.
    Methodology: In Selangor the pilot project was implemented in Section 3 and Section 4 of Bandar Baru Bangi, in the district of Hulu Langat. Here, Aedes breeding was found to occur mainly in water containers of semi permanent nature (eg. ‘kolah’, aquatic plant jars, flower pot bases etc). A total of 172 volunteers were recruited to disperse the message of “Suluh – Suluh, Basuh - Basuh” whilst distributing leaflets and flashlights to 2666 homes. Residents were instructed to illuminate such water containers twice weekly and scrub any containers found to contain larvae. The program commenced on 23/5/2004 and lasted 16 weeks.
    Results : During this period, the initial Aedes Index of 5 was reduced to 0.96 while combined cases of Dengue Fever / Dengue Haemorraghic Fever in Sections 3 and 4 reported to the Hulu Langat District Health Office also dropped to 1 (unconfirmed).
    Conclusion : The COMBI approach in Hulu Langat successfully demonstrated that correct problem identification synergized with community engagement can potentially reduce Aedes proliferationand dengue morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pilot Projects
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