This article presents a Wall Climbing Robot (WCR) that able to move on ferromagnetic vertical surface to carry out visual inspection process. Visual inspection process is important in the industry to check the condition of storage tank, surface of building, piping or equipment thus can prevents structures collapsing or explosion which would bring a huge loss to the company. Moreover, most of the structures nowadays is expose under the sun and rain, corrosion and cracks could easily occur on the surface after exposing under sunlight and rain a long period of time. Therefore the periodic visual inspection process need to be carry out to detect the damaged occur on the surface of the structure and take action at the fastest time to ensure the safety of the structures and extend the lifespan of the structures. With the well maintenance to the structures, the condition of the structures is monitored and the lifespan is longer. The risk of collapse of the building is decrease by a large margin. Normally, the periodic visual inspection process is performed by operator. Sometime the temporary scaffolding is needed to reach the higher place to carry out the inspection. However, this method create a hazardous environment to the operator and cause the safety of the operator threatened. Therefore, the proposed WCR could help operator to work at the hazardous environment. The permanent magnet is used to provide adhesion for WCR, thus WCR able to move on vertical ferromagnetic surface. The WCR is controlled by operator via wireless remote to reach the higher place or the hazardous environment. The operator then can stream the on the real time images via web browser which connected to the same network with the WCR. Hence, the condition of the surface can be observed.
In Malaysia, it is estimated that almost 80 percent of the world's population today used palm oil in their daily lives. Malaysia is the second country exporting palm oil, about 39 percent of world palm oil output. Besides that, Malaysia also recorded about 44 per cent of world exports, making the palm industry very important for countries other than rubber and cocoa. However, to keep the palm industry running smoothly and constantly, there are many challenges to face. One is to maintain soil fertility because the soil can affect the growth of oil palm trees. With the use of this system, it will show the condition of soil behaviour to the farmer about the treatment given. Arduino board is used in this project which it is programmed to calculate and display the level of soil condition by using temperature sensor and soil moisture sensors as an input. This sensor will detect the level of soil moisture and temperature and it is easier for farmers to monitor the soil conditions. Controlled soil conditions can improve the soil's ability to maintain the fertility of palm trees and help plant growth suit to the weather and local climate.
An investigation of bending loss characteristics of a Polymer Optical Fiber is presented experimentally. Loss of optical power in an optical fiber due to bending has been investigated for a wavelength of 650 nm. Variations of bending loss with different lengths have been measured, with a number of radii of curvature. Bending Loss equations for short length POF is proposed, which shows the dependence of bending loss on the curvature radii. The equations can be an initial reference or aid in predicting the loss contributes by the polymer optical fiber.
As the lighting load constituted amount of power in electricity system, improving of efficiency in lighting technology would make a beneficial to consumer, energy provider and environment. Consequently, majority of home lighting manufacturers were competing each other by improving and claiming their product as the best energy efficient lighting product. Knowledge or exposure regarding to lighting technology especially on energy efficiency, power quality and economy are an important issues to give awareness to user before buy or use the lighting product. Therefore in this research study, three types of lighting product such as energy saving incandescent lighting, compact fluorescent lighting (CFL) and solid state lighting (LED) were compared. Comparative parameters were collected from data provided by lighting manufacturer and experimental data conducted in laboratory using power quality meter and lux meter. Hence, these study discussed in term of economy, power and light quality and energy efficiency of the tested lighting product. At the end of this study, the best home lighting technology is determined successfully.
Flood mitigation and assessments are crucial in current time. The seasonal and nonseasonal of flood occurrence in Malaysia provide risk towards country growth and productivity. In this study, the flood pattern will be analysed by using correspondence analysis. The data involve the occurrence of flood based on month and locality from 2013 to 2018. The test of independence (χ2 test) between month and locality indicated independency among the variables (p=0.615). The symmetric plot suggested that Perak, Melaka, Selangor, Johor, Terengganu, Sarawak inclined to have flood occurrence during December to March, while Kedah and Penang during March. This analysis will help authorities to better planning flood mitigation accordingly.
A comfortable work space is important to produce productive work performance among workers. In Malaysia, the condition of office environment and its related issues on thermal comfort are fairly new. Past studies shown that the increment of energy consumption in high rise offices tend to increase dramatically. This is because the consumption of air condition for cooling accounts in office buildings had increased from 40% to 60% in recent years and the total electricity usage for office units also rises intensely due to urban heat island (UHI) resulted from modification of land surfaces. The objective of this paper therefore is to investigate the conditions and problems of existing prominent high rise office in Kuala Lumpur which is IBM Plaza and Menara Mesin Niaga in the scope of thermal comfort as well as describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise office building through an improved building envelope design using green technologies like external wall cladding following the GBI standard. This paper also attempts to get the user perception towards their existing workspace. For this purpose, case study as research strategy is adopted using mixed methodology combining qualitative and quantitative method under the framework of interpretivism and positivism research paradigm. Findings indicate that external wall cladding made of composite aluminium provides much advantages to the user. This study is important because appropriate design principles by adopting appropriate building envelope made of suitable material addressing ecology issues will not only provide a comfortable living environment to the users but also established referential guideline for future designers and scholars whom interested in office design.
Laterite soils are occasionally associated with geotechnical problems such as road deformation, erosion, settlement, dam seepage, slope instability, leachate permeation through hydraulic barriers, etc. Numerous soil improvement techniques were being applied to overcome these problems, including mixing the laterite soil with cements, limes, bitumen, chemicals, pozzolanas, etc. These additives may not be locally available and cheap, and could significantly increase the cost of construction. Likewise, in many cases, these stabilizing agents are not environmentally friendly. Different percentages of fines, sand and gravel in laterite soils exhibit different engineering characteristics and behaviour, making it difficult to obtain suitable and appropriate gradation for specific construction purposes. Thus, the essence of this review is to determine the fundamental engineering properties of laterite soil as a standalone material at different gradations to harness its potentiality for various construction purposes. It proposes step-by-step procedures on how to achieve a better soil by varying its gradation and moisture content. Laboratory testing in accordance with BS1377:1990 and ASTM D698 are adopted to examine the engineering characteristics with respect to hydraulic conductivity, shear strength, and volumetric shrinkage. In this experimental technique where molding water content and compaction energy are carefully controlled at different laterite gradations, the engineering design is anticipated to provide greater accuracy, safety, and sustainability.
Chitin is a biopolymer that forms the exoskeleton of arthropods, and found in the shells of crustacea and in the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. Commercially, chitin is obtained from processing the outer skeleton of crustacea such as shrimp, crab, prawn, and crayfish. Extraction of chitin was carried out using various chemical procedures. The study aim is to examine characteristic of chitin for different aging of Leucaena leucephala pods using hydrochloric acid (HCl). Different aging of the raw materials was used to study their effect of nitrogen content in the pods. In this study, chitin in Leucaena leucephala was extracted using chemical methods by using hydrochloric acid (HCl). The extracted chitin was then characterized by using elemental analyzer. The results obtained revealed that the percentage of nitrogen and carbon content in the samples was significantly reduced after extraction. Elemental analysis, the N% value in younger pods is closer to the theoretical value than adult pods. The purity of chitin in younger pods is higher than chitin in the adult pods.
Anaerobic wastewater treatment technology has become one of the most popular technologies due to its economic and environmental benefits. Therefore, a reliable method to study the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of anaerobic sludge is presented using SMA test. This test helps to determine suitable organic loading rate (OLR) to the anaerobic process. Meanwhile, SMA act as a benchmark to the anaerobic system performance where a slight change in SMA stipulate the accumulation of inhibitory substances from influent wastewater. One of the possible substances that inhibit the anaerobic digestion process is the presence of excessive light metal ions such as sodium (Na+) from the wastewater. The objective of this research was to investigate the specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludge in anaerobic filter and anaerobic digester as well as to compare and analyze anaerobic methanogenic bacteria under the effect of potentially inhibitory compound in both anaerobic digester and anaerobic filter. Two sources of inoculums (one from the anaerobic digester and one from the anaerobic filter) were adapted with sodium with varied range of concentrations which was 0 to 5 g Na + /l, before conducting SMA test by means of pressure differences. For the anaerobic digester, the SMA varied from 0.25 to 0.31 g COD/g VS.day meanwhile for the anaerobic filter, the SMA varied from 0.40 to 0.51 g COD/g VS.day. The result obtained confirmed that sludge from POME have better tolerance towards sodium than influents from petrochemical wastewater.
Computer technology has become a very important element in an advanced manufacturing system. The good and systematic data model for the exchange of manufacturing information between different stages of development of product life cycle is paramount to ensure the product is manufactured and delivered to the market successfully. As a result, ISO 10303, an international standard, or well known as Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is not just for providing a neutral data format within the heterogenous CAD systems, its functionality has extended to the whole life cycle of product. STEP Part 21 is the first implementation method from EXPRESS modelling language and implemented successfully as neutral product data to integrate heterogeneous CAD platform. However, this CAD STEP Part21 text file is hardly to be applied in manufacturing processes since it consists of purely geometrical and topological data. In this research, a nonprocedural approach is presented to translate the EXPRESS language model of STEP CAD data into a new product database system model. A new nonprocedural approach of data enrichment and automated machining feature recognition is proposed and implemented on this newly developed product database system and provide a solution for the interrelated tasks of automated machining feature recognition: (1) extraction of geometrical feature from STEP CAD model data of the part (2) formation of part representation suitable for form feature identification (3) matching of form features. This paper proves the validity of this newly developed product database system by translating STEP Part21 file from a commercial CAD system to database system format, data enrichment, performing automated machining feature recognition and lastly generating STEP standard data according to AP224 for supporting STEP based process planning and manufacturing applications.
Flipped Classroom enables instructors to spend more time for hands-on problem-solving instruction compared to the traditional pedagogical model which involves lectures. The purpose of this study is to determine the need for a problem-solving flipped classroom module to be designed for the STM3023: Internet of Things (IoT) subject offered at the Certificate level at Malaysian Community Colleges. A structured interview was conducted with 16 lecturers from 14 Community Colleges offering the subject to obtain their views on current teaching practices along with the challenges faced in the teaching and learning of IoT to entry level students. Participants were also asked about their readiness towards the flipped classroom following an orientation session on Flipped Classroom approach. The findings showed that lecturers mostly used traditional pedagogical models in the TVET settings such as lectures. Students usually followed instructions and merely replicate the hands-on tasks as demonstrated by their lecturers in class. It was also found that students were struggling with the subject due to their lack of competency in programming and grasping electrical and electronics concepts. Students were also found to be weak in mathematics and reasoning skills, thus making it a challenge to teach IoT to them. Therefore, a myriad of media, materials and application of real-world concepts may be required to aid lecturers to improve students’ achievement in the subject. The flipped classroom approach for teaching which gives more time for hands-on problem-solving instruction may be appropriate to support lecturers to overcome the challenges in teaching IoT.
Plywood is a wood product frequently utilized in building as part of concrete formwork systems. In the concreting process, plywood formwork needs to be strongly made to withstand the pressure subjected by the wet concrete as well as the impact. To reduce the dependency on solid timber as plywood, oil palm stem offers alternative materials. There are four main weaknesses of oil palm stem (OPS) as a material for plywood manufacturing; high variations in density and moisture content (MC), high water absorption and high surface roughness. Therefore, this study modified the drying and treatment process of OPS veneer. The veneer was predried by using roller presser for removing a large amount of water and later treated with medium molecular weight phenolformaldehyde (MMwPF) to bond together parenchyma tissue, cell wall, and a lumen for much uniform density and better surface bonding. The Charpy impact of OPS plywood developed in this study denoted as PTA was investigated. These properties were compared with the properties of another two types of commercial OPS plywood denoted as PTB and PTC which were manufactured using OPS veneer with tropical hardwood veneer for face and back veneer and control plywood denoted as PTD which was manufactured using 100% tropical hardwood veneer. The results showed that PTA has the highest mean value of energy and strength for both notched and unnotched Charpy impact.
The use of concrete for construction had become very common in developing countries. But concrete is not friendly environment because of it consumes huge quantities of natural materials and production of the cement, which is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. The aim of this study is to investigate the Sustainable Green Concrete (SGC) which containing biomass aggregate; fly ash and Superplasticizer. Biomass aggregate and fly ash are waste industry products which are environmentally friendly. The study was carried out to identify the chemical properties of biomass aggregate, and to determine the chemical properties and optimum mix design of the Sustainable Green Concrete (SGC). A total of 90 cube samples were casted and compressive strength were tested at the age of 7, 14 and 28 days. The overall results showed that the workability and compressive strength were decreased with the increase of the replacement of natural aggregate with biomass aggregate. Besides that, the workability and compressive strength was increased with the incorporation with the replacement cement by fly ash. The SGC gained highest compressive strength for the concrete mixes of 39.3 N/mm2 with the optimum percentage used of SGC in producing concrete not exceeding 30% biomass aggregate and 6% of fly ash as a partial replacement with natural aggregate and cement respectively. The results obtained and observation made in this study suggested that biomass aggregate and fly ash are successfully used as partial replacement in producing SGC and can perform better strength development.
In this paper, the water driving cycle had been chosen to determine and compare the component sizing of conventional boat and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Recreational Boat (PHERB) powertrains. PHERB is an improvement on conventional boat to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions. The locations of water driving cycle in this research are at Pulau Kapas and Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu. Boat energy and power requirement was calculated according boat parameters, specifications and performance requirements to study the differences component sizing of conventional boat and PHERB powertrains. Power flow analyses are used to decide the size and capacity of main components for achieving the design specifications and requirements of conventional boat and PHERB powertrains. The results for PHERB powertrain requirement using steady state velocity are 20 kW at 3000 rpm for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), 30 kW for Electric Machine (EM) and 5 kWh for Energy System Storage (ESS). The acquired results show that the PHERB gained the most existing powertrains and has extraordinary potential in applications to marine transportation in reducing fuel consumption and emission.
This study aimed to integrate polyether sulfone (PES) membrane with hydroxyapatite synthesized from fish scale biowaste (HAp) to form ion exchange membrane. The PES incorporated by self-assembled with different concentrations of HAp solution; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 wt%. The prepared ion exchange membranes were characterized regarding permeability coefficient, porosity, morphology, ion exchange capacity (IEC), AT-IR, and fouling analysis. The promising characteristics and outstanding performance demonstrated by PES membrane incorporated with 0.8 wt%. Via SEM images and ATIR spectra, the PES/HAp-0.8 membrane depicted the adequate number, well distributed and low agglomeration of HAp onto the membrane surface with a strong attachment. The membrane also demonstrated good ion exchange capacity around 49%. Permeability coefficient for PES/HAp-0.8 membrane was 101.5 L/m2.h with 87.69 % membrane porosity.
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) has received extensive attention due to the alternatives it provides for reducing the dependency on petroleum. Nowadays, many simulation software such as ADVISOR and AUTONOMIE, were built to help in PHEV research. In this paper, the effect of three main PHEV powertrains such as engine power, traction motor power and battery capacity on fuel consumption, electric consumption and carbon oxide emission is studied using AUTONOMIE. The simulation is designed and run using AUTONOMIE with example of commands used in MATLAB. The overall simulation results show that the fuel consumption decreases as the motor power increases with the same battery capacity and engine power. In additions, the simulation results also show that the electric and fuel consumptions are contrary to each other. Meanwhile, the carbon oxide emission and fuel consumption increase following each other’s.
In the past few years, solid liquid extraction (SLE) has shown greater potential in extraction of rare earth elements (REE) compared to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The objective of this study is to analyse the extraction behaviour of dysprosium (Dy) using the extractant immobilised resin (EIR) in SLE. In this study, the synergist activity between ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2])) with conventional extractant of Aliquat 336 (A336) were investigated and the most effective synergist extractant (SE) was further immobilised onto resins (CR11, HP20 and SP207) to synthesise EIR. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect the concentration Dy before and after extraction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterise EIRs. From the study, [C2mim][NTf2] showed better compatibility with A336 since this SE (A336- [C2mim][NTf2]) gives higher extraction efficiency of Dy at 90% compared to A336- [C4mim][NTf2] with less than 11% efficiency. SLE using resins immobilised with A336- [C2mim][NTf2] proved that only EIR1 (CR11) can effectively extract Dy compared to EIR2 (HP20) and EIR3 (SP207). The porosity of CR11 was higher compared to other resins which made EIR1 very efficient in adsorbing Dy. Plus, using 0.1 g of EIR1, 100% of Dy was extracted from 5 mL of aqueous phase in SLE compared to 2 mL of aqueous phase in LLE. Conclusively, this research has the potential to improvise the conventional practise of LLE into SLE using EIR with reduction in the use of extractant.
Recently RESS method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction. Therefore, the objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process and to study the effect of pressure and temperature on extraction yield. RESS experiments were carried out at various extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C, respectively for 40 minutes extraction time and constant flowrate (24ml/min).From the studies conducted, it was found that extraction pressure is an important factor that can affect particle size and extraction yield. By increasing the extraction pressure, the extraction yield was found to increase with increasing of pressure at constant temperature, but extraction yield was found to decrease with increasing temperature. The highest extraction yield is 2.41% obtained at extraction pressure of 6000psi and constant extraction temperature of 65°C.
Most of the previous researchers used conventional extraction technique such as steam distillation and solvent extraction method in Chromolaena Odorata extraction. Therefore, in this study a clean extraction method that is Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technology using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent (SC-CO2) was introduced for Chromolaena Odorata leaves extraction to produce oil of bioactive components. The objective of this research was to find the optimum pressure for the highest oil yield extracted. The extraction was conducted within a range of temperature (40, 45 and 50°C) and pressure (3000, 3500, 4000, 4500 and 5000psi), at a constant flowrate (24 ml/min) for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of extraction time. From the studies, it was found that extraction pressure is an important factor that can affect the extraction yield where the oil yield increased as the pressure increased due to the increasing amount of CO2 consumed where it boost the density of the solvent to interact with the solute. The highest oil yield is 51.20% at pressure of 4000psi and temperature 50°C. Whereas at the highest pressure of 5000psi, the oil yield is the lowest. This shows that the extraction is not suitable at pressure 5000psi.
The objective of this study is to characterized chitin from Leucaena leucephala pods at different aging stages with hydrochloric acid HCl by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Leucaena leucephala is chosen to be used in this study because it is abundantly and can be found easily along the road as it is widely spread in Malaysia and available throughout the year. Leucaena leucephala is not fully utilized yet and it could potential for new source for chitin. Results from FTIR shows that Amide I band in Leucaena leucephala before and after extraction range of 1650-1600cm-1 and is not divided into two peaks which make it appear close to a β-chitin. Beside, Amide I band of Leucaena leucephala before and after extraction is appearing wide (U-shaped) rather than sharp therefore the chitin from Leucaena leucephala is determined to be in the form of β- chitin.