• 1 Communication System and Network (iKohza) Research Group, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering International Islamic University Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0151355.
PMID: 27438600 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151355


This study aims to design a vertical handover prediction method to minimize unnecessary handovers for a mobile node (MN) during the vertical handover process. This relies on a novel method for the prediction of a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) referred to as IRBF-FFA, which is designed by utilizing the imperialist competition algorithm (ICA) to train the radial basis function (RBF), and by hybridizing with the firefly algorithm (FFA) to predict the optimal solution. The prediction accuracy of the proposed IRBF-FFA model was validated by comparing it to support vector machines (SVMs) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) models. In order to assess the model's performance, we measured the coefficient of determination (R2), correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The achieved results indicate that the IRBF-FFA model provides more precise predictions compared to different ANNs, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The performance of the proposed model is analyzed through simulated and real-time RSSI measurements. The results also suggest that the IRBF-FFA model can be applied as an efficient technique for the accurate prediction of vertical handover.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.