• 1 Jami Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Isfahan, Iran
  • 2 Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Technology & Built Environment, UCSI University, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Process System Engineering Center, Faculty of Engineering, Technology & Built Environment, UCSI University, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:
  • 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
  • 4 Chemical and Environmental Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Victoria, Australia
  • 5 Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 6 Department of Chemical Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
J Environ Manage, 2016 Dec 01;183:41-58.
PMID: 27576148 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.054


The extensive amount of available information on global warming suggests that this issue has become prevalent worldwide. Majority of countries have issued laws and policies in response to this concern by requiring their industrial sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2. Thus, introducing new and more effective treatment methods, such as biological techniques, is crucial to control the emission of greenhouse gases. Many studies have demonstrated CO2 fixation using photo-bioreactors and raceway ponds, but a comprehensive review is yet to be published on biological CO2 fixation. A comprehensive review of CO2 fixation through biological process is presented in this paper as biological processes are ideal to control both organic and inorganic pollutants. This process can also cover the classification of methods, functional mechanisms, designs, and their operational parameters, which are crucial for efficient CO2 fixation. This review also suggests the bio-trickling filter process as an appropriate approach in CO2 fixation to assist in creating a pollution-free environment. Finally, this paper introduces optimum designs, growth rate models, and CO2 fixation of microalgae, functions, and operations in biological CO2 fixation.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.