• 1 Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • 2 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • 3 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre


Vitamin A, C and E intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been
inconsistent and limited to developed countries with higher cancer incidence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to
examine the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with vitamin A, C and E intake from
dietary sources. This is a population based case-control study conducted in Malaysian population among 382 breast cancer
patients and 382 control group. Dietary intake was assessed via an interviewer-administered food frequency
questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad
range of potential confounders were included in analysis. The results of this study shows a significant decreased risk of
breast cancer among premenopausal (ORQ4 to Q1=0.38, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.55, p-trend=0.001) and postmenopausal (ORQ4 to
Q1=0.26, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.75, p-trend=0.017) women was observed in the highest quartile of beta-carotene intake.
Meanwhile, a higher intake of vitamin C showed significantly lowered risk only for premenopausal women (ORQ4 to
Q1=0.13, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.32, p-trend=0.001). As a conclusion, beta-carotene intake was independently related to pre- and
postmenopausal breast cancer risk, while vitamin C intake was associated with decreased risk among premenopausal
women only. However, no association was observed for vitamin A especially retinol and vitamin E intake from dietary