• 1 Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Computer Science and Info Tech., Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0197087.
PMID: 29874237 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197087


Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) has emerged as promising networking techniques to monitor and explore oceans. Research on acoustic communication has been conducted for decades, but had focused mostly on issues related to physical layer such as high latency, low bandwidth, and high bit error. However, data gathering process is still severely limited in UWSN due to channel impairment. One way to improve data collection in UWSN is the design of routing protocol. Opportunistic Routing (OR) is an emerging technique that has the ability to improve the performance of wireless network, notably acoustic network. In this paper, we propose an anycast, geographical and totally opportunistic routing algorithm for UWSN, called TORA. Our proposed scheme is designed to avoid horizontal transmission, reduce end to end delay, overcome the problem of void nodes and maximize throughput and energy efficiency. We use TOA (Time of Arrival) and range based equation to localize nodes recursively within a network. Once nodes are localized, their location coordinates and residual energy are used as a matrix to select the best available forwarder. All data packets may or may not be acknowledged based on the status of sender and receiver. Thus, the number of acknowledgments for a particular data packet may vary from zero to 2-hop. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme for high network traffic load under very sparse and very dense network scenarios. Simulation results show that TORA significantly improves the network performance when compared to some relevant existing routing protocols, such as VBF, HHVBF, VAPR, and H2DAB, for energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, average hop-count and propagation deviation factor. TORA reduces energy consumption by an average of 35% of VBF, 40% of HH-VBF, 15% of VAPR, and 29% of H2DAB, whereas the packet delivery ratio has been improved by an average of 43% of VBF, 26% of HH-VBF, 15% of VAPR, and 25% of H2DAB. Moreover, the average end-to-end delay has been reduced by 70% of VBF, 69% of HH-VBF, 46% of VAPR, and 73% of H2DAB. Furthermore, average hope-count has been improved by 57%, 53%, 16% and 31% as compared to VBF, HHVBF, VAPR, and H2DAB, respectively. Also, propagation delay has been reduced by 34%, 30%, 15% and 23% as compared to VBF, HHVBF, VAPR, and H2DAB, respectively.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.