• 1 University of Calcutta
  • 2 Lincoln University College


Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus. The epidemiology of this emergent hitherto neglected disease has become a poignant interest in the context of the recent outbreaks in South America. The severe impact of which led World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency (PHE) of International concern. Interestingly, two recognized and potential vectors of this virus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been prevalent in most of the habitable continents in the world including the Indian sub-continent. In accordance to the earlier apprehension, several cases of ZIKV were reported in 2017 and 2018 from the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in Western India. Studies indicated that the emerging arboviral infections generally stemmed from an animal reservoir, but there is inadequate information on the natural history of several arboviruses, like ZIKV, specially their methods of survival during the inter-epidemic period. Hence, a sustained vector-virus and vertebrate-host surveillance is an imperative necessity in Zika endemic and non-endemic regions to formulate strategies for the prevention offuture outbreak, if any. This review is an attempt to provide an understanding of the interplay of Zika virus and its vector/s and vertebrate host/s in reference to today's changing environment.