The most critical issues faced by the world nowadays is to provide the sustainability of consumption for energy and natural resources. Lignin is said to be one of the alternative new discoveries best-suited lignocellulosic biomass due to its low cost, sufficient availability and environmentally safe. The valuable properties exhibited by lignin can give broader applications usage such as in composite materials, wood industries, polymer composite industries, pharmaceutical and corrosion inhibitor industries. Many biomass wastes resources, isolation processes and treatments are undergoing development in order to enhance the producing new lignin-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review discussed on the current knowledge on the structure and chemistry of isolation of lignin from different sources using various common methods, its characterization, properties and its applications.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.