Affiliations 

  • 1 Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • 2 Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • 3 Kulliyyah of ICT, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 4 Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
PMID: 32849861 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8828855

Abstract

The key component in deep learning research is the availability of training data sets. With a limited number of publicly available COVID-19 chest X-ray images, the generalization and robustness of deep learning models to detect COVID-19 cases developed based on these images are questionable. We aimed to use thousands of readily available chest radiograph images with clinical findings associated with COVID-19 as a training data set, mutually exclusive from the images with confirmed COVID-19 cases, which will be used as the testing data set. We used a deep learning model based on the ResNet-101 convolutional neural network architecture, which was pretrained to recognize objects from a million of images and then retrained to detect abnormality in chest X-ray images. The performance of the model in terms of area under the receiver operating curve, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 0.82, 77.3%, 71.8%, and 71.9%, respectively. The strength of this study lies in the use of labels that have a strong clinical association with COVID-19 cases and the use of mutually exclusive publicly available data for training, validation, and testing.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.