Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 247 in total

  1. Khan MZ, Ling YS, Yaqoob I, Kumar NN, Kuang LL, San WC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:240729.
    PMID: 25544952 DOI: 10.1155/2014/240729
    A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5 × 10(16)/m(3), respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  2. Pan KL, Zulkarnaen M
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69(4):197-8.
    PMID: 25500853 MyJurnal
    There is a resurgence of tuberculosis globally but lesions affecting the skull are rare. Cases reported are of single, focal lesions as seen on plain x-rays. We report a 34 yearold patient with tuberculosis of the skull where multiple punched out lesions are seen, mimicking that of multiple myeloma.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  3. Mahdi RI, Gan WC, Abd Majid WH
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(10):19115-27.
    PMID: 25317763 DOI: 10.3390/s141019115
    Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer 70/30 thin films are prepared by spin coating. The crystalline structure of these films is investigated by varying the annealing temperature from the ferroelectric phase to the paraelectric phase. A hot plate was used to produce a direct and an efficient annealing effect on the thin film. The dielectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin films are measured as a function of different annealing temperatures (80 to 140 °C). It was found that an annealing temperature of 100 °C (slightly above the Curie temperature, Tc) has induced a highly crystalline β phase with a rod-like crystal structure, as examined by X-ray. Such a crystal structure yields a high remanent polarization, Pr = 94 mC/m2, and pyroelectric constant, p = 24 μC/m2K. A higher annealing temperature exhibits an elongated needle-like crystal domain, resulting in a decrease in the crystalline structure and the functional electrical properties. This study revealed that highly crystalline P(VDF-TrFE) thin films could be induced at 100 °C by annealing the thin film with a simple and cheap method.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  4. Abdul Aziz SA, Mohd Saparudin AK, Harun AZ
    PMID: 23966821 MyJurnal
    Different target-filter combinations in computed radiography have different impacts on the dose and image quality in digital radiography. This study aims to evaluate the mean glandular dose (MGD) and modulation transfer function (MTF) of various target-filter combinations by investigating the signal intensities of X-ray beams.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  5. Dolah MT, Samat SB, Kadni T
    PMID: 22844215
    Absorbed dose to water was measured with ionisation chambers NE 2561 (#267), NE 2581 (#334), NE 2571 (#1028), using the IAEA standard water phantom. The ionisation chamber was inserted in the water phantom at a reference depth dependent on the type of the radiation quality used. Three radiation qualities were used namely 1.25 MeV gamma ray, 6 MV x-rays and 10 MV x-rays. The values of the absorbed dose to water were determined by the N(K)- and N(X)- based methods, i.e with the use of IAEA, HPA, NACP, AAPM, NCRP and ICRU protocols. The aim of this study was to make an intercomparison of the results, by taking the IAEA protocol as a standard. The largest deviation contributed by any of these protocols was recorded for each quality. It was found that AAPM, NCRP and ICRU protocols contributed 0.94% for 1.25 MeV gamma ray, NACP contributed 2.12% for the 6 MV x-rays, and NACP contributed 2.35% for 10 MV x-rays. Since the acceptable limit of deviation set by the IAEA for this absorbed dose work is ± 3%, it is clear that the overall deviations obtained were all satisfactory.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  6. Chen SC, Jong WL, Harun AZ
    PMID: 23610546 MyJurnal
    Different computational methods have been used for the prediction of X-ray spectra and beam quality in diagnostic radiology. The purpose of this study was to compare X-ray beam qualities based on half-value layers (HVLs) determined through measurements and computational model estimations.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  7. Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman
    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  8. Husaini Salleh, Supian Samat, Mohd Khalid Matori, Muhammad Jamal Md Isa, Mohd Ramli Arshad, Shahrul Azlan Azizan, et al.
    Heel Effect is the well known phenomena in x-ray production. It contributes the effect to image
    formation and as well as scattered radiation. But there is paucity in the study related to heel effect.
    This study is for mapping and profiling the dose on the surface of water phantom by using mobile
    C-arm unit Toshiba SXT-1000A. Based on the result the dose profile is increasing up to at least
    about 57% from anode to cathode bound of the irradiated area. This result and information can be
    used as a guide to manipulate this phenomenon for better image quality and radiation safety for
    this specific and dedicated fluoroscopy unit.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  9. Islam MT, Samsuzzaman M, Islam MT, Kibria S, Singh MJ
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Sep 05;18(9).
    PMID: 30189684 DOI: 10.3390/s18092962
    Microwave breast imaging has been reported as having the most potential to become an alternative or additional tool to the existing X-ray mammography technique for detecting breast tumors. Microwave antenna sensor performance plays a significant role in microwave imaging system applications because the image quality is mostly affected by the microwave antenna sensor array properties like the number of antenna sensors in the array and the size of the antenna sensors. In this paper, a new system for successful early detection of a breast tumor using a balanced slotted antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (BSAVA) sensor is presented. The designed antenna sensor has an overall dimension of 0.401λ × 0.401λ × 0.016λ at the first resonant frequency and operates between 3.01 to 11 GHz under 10 dB. The radiating fins are modified by etching three slots on both fins which increases the operating bandwidth, directionality of radiation pattern, gain and efficiency. The antenna sensor performance of both the frequency domain and time domain scenarios and high-fidelity factor with NFD is also investigated. The antenna sensor can send and receive short electromagnetic pulses in the near field with low loss, little distortion and highly directionality. A realistic homogenous breast phantom is fabricated, and a breast phantom measurement system is developed where a two antennas sensor is placed on the breast model rotated by a mechanical scanner. The tumor response was investigated by analyzing the backscattering signals and successful image construction proves that the proposed microwave antenna sensor can be a suitable candidate for a high-resolution microwave breast imaging system.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  10. Samat S, Too S, Kadni T, Dollah M
    The values of beam quality correction factor kQ that were experimentally determined from year 2002 to 2008 were analysed. As kQ is the function of ionization chamber and beam quality, the analysis were based on three cases namely (a) kQ(NE2571, 6 MV x-rays) that were determined from 17 measurements in the duration of 69 months at 6 radiotherapy centres, (b) kQ(NE2571, 10 MV x-rays) from 7 measurements in the duration of 12 months at one radiotherapy centre, and (c) kQ(NE2581, 6 MV x-rays) from 5 measurements in the duration of 5 months also at one radiotherapy centre. The purpose is to examine, in each case, the variation kQ for all the measurements. In other words, to see variation kQ with time. Results obtained are 0.993(NE2571, 6 MV), 0.986(NE2571, 10 MV) and 0.986(NE2581, 6 MV). This shows that in each case, despite the difference in the experimental data in getting kQ for all measurement, kQ remains constant with time. Reasons for this are explained.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  11. Izuogu DC, Asegbeloyin JN, Jotani MM, Tiekink ERT
    PMID: 32431935 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989020005101
    The X-ray crystal structure of the title phthalazin-1-one derivative, C17H16N2O3S {systematic name: 2-[(2,4,6-tri-methyl-benzene)-sulfon-yl]-1,2-di-hydro-phthalazin-1-one}, features a tetra-hedral sulfoxide-S atom, connected to phthalazin-1-one and mesityl residues. The dihedral angle [83.26 (4)°] between the organic substituents is consistent with the mol-ecule having the shape of the letter V. In the crystal, phthalazinone-C6-C-H⋯O(sulfoxide) and π(phthalazinone-N2C4)-π(phthalazinone-C6) stacking [inter-centroid distance = 3.5474 (9) Å] contacts lead to a linear supra-molecular tape along the a-axis direction; tapes assemble without directional inter-actions between them. The analysis of the calculated Hirshfeld surfaces confirm the importance of the C-H⋯O and π-stacking inter-actions but, also H⋯H and C-H⋯C contacts. The calculation of the inter-action energies indicate the importance of dispersion terms with the greatest energies calculated for the C-H⋯O and π-stacking inter-actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  12. Nur Farahana Pauzi, Zafri Azran Abdul Majid, Wan Muhamad Nasuha Wan Hussin, Abdul Halim Sapuan, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin
    X-ray is produced in form of divergent beam. The beam divergence results to blurring effect that influences image diagnosis. Thus, the blurring effect assessment should be enrolled within the quality control (QC) program of an imaging unit.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  13. Nurshuhada Ali, Zafri Azran Abdul Majid, Mohd Syahriman Mohd Azmi
    The ideal imaging system that is providing a good quality image of minimal radiation dose. There are many parameters that influenced image quality and radiation dose on clinical radiography. This study has identified some of the problems whereby there are practitioners do not select the proper size of image receptor (IR) and collimation during the examination. The re-usable of the IR and imaging plate also need to be concerned whether multiple exposures may affect the image
    quality or not. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different exposure settings; kVp, mAs, collimation field sizes and different IR’ sizes for image quality and radiation dose. Methods: The wall-mounted x-ray machine act as a sources of radiation which exposed the acrylic cylinder that placed over the IR. The examination is repeated with different kVp, mAs, collimation field sizes and IR’s sizes. The source to image distance (SID) is fixed to 100 cm distance and put Nano dot dosimeter similar level with the top of acrylic to measure the dose. The result analysed by using software ImageJ to measure the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR). Results: The percentage of CNR1 and CNR2 reduced as the kVp is increased from (CNR1=77.25, CNR2=64.45), (CNR1=73.47, CNR2=61.22) and (CNR1=62.80, CNR2=57.32) for 50 kVp, 75 kVp and 100 kVp respectively and fluctuate when mAs increased. The CNR and entrance skin dose (ESD) shows higher when x-ray beam collimate according to IR’s size. Conclusions: Overall, the manipulative effect of exposure settings on image quality and ESD shows some positive results. The result also shows inconsistent readings in the CNR and ESD. The percentage of CNR decreased when kVp increases and slightly fluctuate when mAs increased. The ESD reading depicts higher when the kVp and mAs increase as well as when x-ray beam collimated according to IR’s sizes.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  14. Che Azemin MZ, Hassan R, Mohd Tamrin MI, Md Ali MA
    PMID: 32849861 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8828855
    The key component in deep learning research is the availability of training data sets. With a limited number of publicly available COVID-19 chest X-ray images, the generalization and robustness of deep learning models to detect COVID-19 cases developed based on these images are questionable. We aimed to use thousands of readily available chest radiograph images with clinical findings associated with COVID-19 as a training data set, mutually exclusive from the images with confirmed COVID-19 cases, which will be used as the testing data set. We used a deep learning model based on the ResNet-101 convolutional neural network architecture, which was pretrained to recognize objects from a million of images and then retrained to detect abnormality in chest X-ray images. The performance of the model in terms of area under the receiver operating curve, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 0.82, 77.3%, 71.8%, and 71.9%, respectively. The strength of this study lies in the use of labels that have a strong clinical association with COVID-19 cases and the use of mutually exclusive publicly available data for training, validation, and testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  15. Anizaim AH, Zainuri DA, Zaini MF, Razak IA, Bakhtiar H, Arshad S
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0241113.
    PMID: 33147247 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241113
    Two organometallic compounds known as (E)-1-ferrocenyl-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Fc1) and (E)-1-ferrocenyl-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Fc2) are designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on a donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) architecture. By strategically introducing a methoxy group into the acceptor side of the compound, Fc2 which has adopted a D-π-A-AD structure are compared with the basic D-π-A structure of Fc1. Both compounds were characterized by utilizing the IR, NMR and UV-Vis methods. Target compounds were further investigated by X-ray analysis and studied computationally using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approaches to explore their potential performances in DSSCs. An additional methoxy group has been proven in enhancing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) by improving the planarity of Fc2 backbone. This good electronic communication leads to higher HOMO energy level, larger dipole moment and better short-circuit current density (Jsc) values. Eventually, the presence of methoxy group in Fc2 has improved the conversion efficiency as in comparison to Fc1 under the same conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  16. Moey, Soo-Foon, Nur Farah Hani Muhd Jaafar, Nursyahirah Saidin
    Introduction: Various medium and high tube potentials were utilized to conduct chest x-rays. There
    are advantages and disadvantages with regards to image quality and radiation dose when using
    medium and high kilovoltage (kVp) technique. However, radiographers have misconstrued
    understanding pertaining to the choice of tube potential as well as grid usage when performing chest radiography. Methods: The experimental study was conducted using the PBU-50 phantom by exposing it with medium kVp utilizing grid and non-grid as well as high kVp with grid. All images obtained were evaluated using the modified evaluation criteria for PA chest established by the Commission of European Communities, 1996 whilst the dose area product (DAP) was determined using the Dose Area Product (DAP) meter. The value obtained from the DAP meter was converted to entrance surface dose (ESD) usingCALDOSE_X5.0 software and mathematical formula. Results: The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated a significant difference in ESD when using medium and high kVp; Z= -2.666, p
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  17. Salehi Z, Ya Ali NK, Yusoff AL
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2012 Nov;70(11):2586-9.
    PMID: 22940409 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.12.007
    BEAMnrc was used to derive the X-ray spectra, from which HVL and homogeneity coefficient were determined, for different kVp and filtration settings. Except for the peak at 61 keV, the spectra are in good agreement with the IPEM report 78 data for the case of filtered beams, whereas the unfiltered beams exhibit softer spectra. Although the current attenuation data deviates from the IPEM 78 data by ~±0.5%, this has negligible effects on the calculated HVL values.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays/adverse effects*
  18. Tajudin SM, Tabbakh F
    Radiol Phys Technol, 2019 Sep;12(3):299-304.
    PMID: 31302871 DOI: 10.1007/s12194-019-00522-w
    Photon irradiation facilities are often shielded using lead despite its toxicity and high cost. In this study, three Monte Carlo codes, EGS5, MCNPX, and Geant4, were utilized to investigate the efficiency of a relatively new polymeric base compound (CnH2n), as a radiation shielding material for photons with energies below 150 keV. The proposed compound with the densities of 6 and 8 g cm-3 were doped with the weight percentages of 8.0 and 15.0% gadolinium. The probabilities of photoelectric effect and Compton scattering were relatively equal at low photon energies, thus the shielding design was optimized using three Monte Carlo codes for the conformity of calculation results. Consequently, 8% Gd-doped polymer with thickness less than 2 cm and density of 6 g cm-3 was adequate for X-ray room shielding to attenuate more than 95% of the 150-keV incident photons. An average dose rate reduction of 88% can be achieved to ensure safety of the radiation area.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays/adverse effects
  19. Parlak C, Ramasami P, Kumar CS, Tursun M, Quah CK, Rhyman L, et al.
    PMID: 25974671 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.04.022
    A novel (2E)-1-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-3-{4-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]phenyl}prop-2-en-1-one [C21H15ClOS] compound has been synthesized and its structure has been characterized by FT-IR, Raman and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The conformational isomers, optimized geometric parameters, normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of the compound have been examined by means of HF, MP2, BP86, BLYP, BMK, B3LYP, B3PW91, B3P86 and M06-2X functionals. Reliable vibrational assignments and molecular orbitals have been investigated by the potential energy distribution and natural bonding orbital analyses, respectively. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the cis-trans-trans form. There is a good agreement between the experimentally determined structural parameters and vibrational frequencies of the compound and those predicted theoretically using the density functional theory with the BLYP and BP86 functionals.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  20. Kahairi, A., Ahmad, R.L., Wan Islah, L., Norra, H.
    Ameloblastoma is a slow growing benign tumour of the jaw and patients usually present late after the tumour achieved considerable size to cause facial disfigurement. Diagnosis mainly from tissue biopsy and characteristic findings on plain X-rays does assist in differentiating between types of ameloblastoma. The challenges in the management of this tumour are to provide complete excision as recurrence may occur in incomplete removal and also to reconstruct the bony defect in order to give reasonable cosmetic and functional outcome to the patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
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