Introduction: Vaccine hesitancy is “to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vacci-nation services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines...”. National vaccination data showed presence of hesitancy and the potential for others to develop hesitancy. An over-view of vaccine hesitancy is needed to organise our understanding and to focus our efforts in health promotion. The objectives of this review were to (1) describe the scope of vaccine hesitancy involving target population, theoretical developments and practical implications and (2) to identify potential research avenues for health promotion in Ma-laysia. Methods: Scoping review methodology was used. Search strategy utilised keywords for publications from the year 2000 onwards with a focus on local parental vaccine hesitancy. Literature review focused on global theoretical development and analysis were done on local empirical findings. Results: Theoretical developments have led to the Vaccine Hesitancy Determinant Matrix (VHDM) describing factors within three themes: “vaccine/vaccination-specif-ic issues”, “individual or group influence” and “contextual influence”. Parents can be classified into ‘unquestioning acceptor’, ‘cautious acceptor’, ‘hesitant’, ‘late or selective vaccinator’ and the ‘refuser’ of all vaccines. Globally, various mode of interventions has been explored. However, there was a disproportionate focus on knowledge, at-titude and practice research among local parents. There were only two local interventional studies that have been published. Conclusion: There is a dearth of interventional studies locally. Each of the parental groups outlined needs a tailored approach to combat vaccine hesitancy. Global interventional research showed a multitude of approaches towards educational intervention that local researchers should capitalise on developing strategies, techniques and modules for the local population.