Microbial keratitis is one of the most challenging complications of contact lens (CL) wear. Proper CL practice plays an important role to reduce the risk for contact lens related microbial keratitis (CLRMK). Methods: This multi-centre case-control study was conducted from January 2008 until June 2009 to determine the risk factors associated with CLRMK. Cases were defined as respondents who were treated for CLRMK, whilst controls were respondents who were contact lens wearers without microbial keratitis. Ninety four cases were compared to 94 controls to determine the risk factors for
CLRMK. Results: The predictors for CLRMK were: Not washing hands with soap before handling CL (aOR 2.979, CI 1.020, 8.701 p=0.046), not performing rubbing technique whilst cleaning the CL (aOR 3.006, CI 1.198, 7.538 p=0.019) and, not cleaning the lens case with multipurpose solution daily (aOR 3.242 CI 1.463, 7.186 p=0.004). Sleeping overnight with the CL in the eye (aOR 2.864, CI 0.978, 8.386 p=0.049) and overall non-compliance with lens care procedures (aOR 2.590, CI 1.003, 6.689 p=0.049) contributed significantly to CLRMK. Conclusion: Health education and promotion in contact lens care are important and should be conducted by eye care practitioners to reduce the occurrence of CLRMK.
Osteolytic disease of the bones have a myriad range of aetiology. One rare cause is Gorham’s disease
or disappearing bone disease. This disease is a diagnosis by exclusion using correlation made with
clinical presentation, radiological findings and histopathological confirmation. Although many different
therapies have been advocated, none have been successful in fully controlling this disease. We present a
case that was detected in a Chinese lady using diagnostic imaging, confirmed with computed tomography
guided biopsy and successfully treated with joint reconstruction using endoprosthesis.
Thrombosis is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in women of reproductive age group. Thrombosis at unusual sites may pose diagnostic and management dilemma for health care personnel. Teamwork and good communication provide the best modalities for maximum benefits to patients. Here with, we presented a case series of thrombosis at unusual sites seen and managed in our clinic.
A 35 year-old Malay lady presented with left hemiparesis while she was on oestrogen based combined contraception pills (C-OCP). Imaging studies showed extensive venous thrombosis with bilateral acute cortical infarct. Thrombophilia screening of antiphospholipid syndrome were negative. She was put on anticoagulant and stopped 2 years after the incident.
A 40 year-old Malay lady presented with abdominal discomfort, lethargy and massive splenomegaly. Bone marrow and trephine examination revealed primary myelofibrosis with positive JAK2617F. Imaging study showed chronic portal vein thrombosis with portal vein hypertension, complicated by gastro-oesophageal varices. She was put on hydroxyurea and later started on ruxolitinib with banding done over her gastro-oesophageal varices.
A 26 year-old Malay lady presented with serositis, mouth ulcer and anaemia symptoms. Laboratory studies were positive for systemic lupus erythematosus and negative for antiphospholipid study. Imaging study showed long segment thrombosis of right internal jugular vein with surrounding subcutaneous oedema. She is currently stable on anticoagulants and steroid. Teamwork and holistic approach is practiced in the investigation and management to provide maximum benefits for patients.
Plunging epidermoid cyst of the floor of mouth is indeed an uncommon entity. A 34-year old Malay
gentleman had presented to our centre with a floor of mouth lesion that extended into the submental
region. Clinical findings and imaging studies pointed towards the impression of a plunging ranula.
Histopathological examination of a completely excised mass via intraoral approach, confirmed the
diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. He was well on follow up with no subsequent recurrence. We discuss
the nature of epidermoid cyst and its surgical management.
Mastoid osteoma is a rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. Osteomas of the temporal bone are
infrequent, and these mastoid osteomas are a definite rare occurrence. These tumours can present with
cosmetic deformity and sometimes with pain. In this report we describe a patient with mastoid osteoma
who presented with cosmetic deformity and experienced retro auricular pain.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great therapeutic potential for regenerative
medicine and tissue engineering due to inherent immunomodulatory and reparative properties. Hence,
it necessitates a readily available supplyof MSCs to meet the clinical demands adequately. Although,
a human placenta can produce MSCs, the in vitro culture-mediated cellular senescence often affect the
quality of cell product. Thus, the current study has explored the feasibility of basic fibroblast growth
factor (bFGF) to enhance the growth of placenta-derived MSCs (PLC-MSCs). Methods:The basic
fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was supplemented to optimise the growth of MSCs. The effects of
bFGF on morphology, growth kinetics and cytokine secretion of PLC-MSCs were assessed. Results:
The bFGF supplementation increased the proliferation of PLC-MSCs in a dose-dependent manner and
40 ng/ml showed a high trophism effect on PLC-MSC’s growth. In the presence of bFGF, PLC-MSCs
acquired a small and well-defined morphology that reflect an active proliferative status. BFGF has
induced PLC-MSCs to achieve a shorter doubling time (45 hrs) as compared to the non-supplemented
PLC-MSCs culture (81 hrs). Furthermore, bFGF impelled PLC-MSCs into cell cycle machinery where
a substantial fraction of cells was driven to S and G2/M phases. Amongst, 36 screened cytokines, bFGF
had only altered the secretion of IL-8, IL-6, TNFR1, MMP3 and VEGF. Conclusion:The present study
showed that bFGF supplementation promotes the growth of PLC-MSCs without significantly deviating
from the standard criteria of MSCs. Thus, bFGF could be considered as a potential mitogen to facilitate
the large-scale production of PLC-MSCs.
Introduction: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is one of the end organ damage detected
in patients having metabolic syndrome X and it can lead to chronic liver failure. Therefore, it is
important to be able to assess the condition in a quantifiable manner to help clinicians recognize
and treat this disease. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with
metabolic syndrome in Serdang Hospital, Malaysia using contrast-enhanced multidetector computed
tomography (CECT) abdominal scan. The study also aimed to calculate the quantification of NAFLD
using liver to spleen density CT Hounsfield Unit ratio, CTL/S or CTL/S measurement using abdominal
CECT scans. Furthermore, we aimed to verify the correlation of dyslipidemia with NAFLD based on
the CTL/S parameter. Materials and Method: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study in
Hospital Serdang, Malaysia using data from January 2012 to December 2013. The sample size was 279
patients with metabolic syndrome who had undergone CECT abdominal scan. Patient demographics
were descriptively analysed. Spearman’s correlation test was used to look for association among lipid
profile, blood sugar level and CTL/S ratio. Results: The prevalence of NAFLD in metabolic syndrome
patients in our population was 82.8%. Prevalence of NAFLD was high among the elderly population (≥
57 years old). Additionally, Indian ethnics with metabolic syndrome had the highest risk of developing
NAFLD (90.9%). There was a significant association between elevated LDL levels and CTL/S ratio
Introduction: Current prognostic markers have improved survival prediction, however, it has not
advanced treatment strategies. Gene expression profiling may identify biological markers suitable as
therapeutic targets. Leukaemia stem cell is associated with adverse outcome, however, its biological
characteristics are still being investigated. We observed higher in vitro cell viability in acute myeloid
leukaemia (AML) samples with poor prognosis, which may be stem cell related. Objective: The
objective of this study was to profile highly expressed genes in an AML sample of poor prognosis/high
viability and compare with a sample of good prognosis/low viability. Method: Subtractive hybridization
was performed on two AML samples with high blast counts (>80%), a poor prognosis, PP (disease free
survival, DFS12 months) sample. The PP sample had
higher CD34+ counts (73% vs 46%) and higher cell viability than the GP sample. cDNA libraries were
subsequently cloned and sequenced. Results: cDNA subtracted from the PP samples was identified
as genes active during fetal/embryonic development (LCOR, CNOT1, ORMDL1), HOX- related genes
(HOXA3, PBX3, SF3B1), hematopoiesis (SELL, IL-3RA) and aerobic glycolysis/hypoxia (PGK1,
HIGD1A) -associated genes. Majority of GP clones isolated contained genes involved in oxidative
phosphorylation, OXPHOS (COXs, ATPs, MTND4 and MTRNR2), protein synthesis (including
ribosomal proteins, initiating and elongation factors), chromatin remodeling (H2AFZ, PTMA), cell
motility (MALAT1, CALM2, TMSB4X), and mitochondria (HSPA9, MPO) genes. Conclusion: Thus,
the PP sample exhibited stem cell-like features while the GP sample showed cells at a high level of cell
activity. These genes are potential prognostic markers and targets for therapy.
Introduction: The phenotype and genotype of cancer cells portray hallmarks of cancer which may
have clinical value. Cancer cell lines are ideal models to study and confirm these characteristics. We
previously established two subtracted cDNA libraries with differentially expressed genes from an
acute myeloid leukaemia patient with poor prognosis (PP) and good prognosis (GP). Objective: To
compare gene expression of the leukaemia associated genes with selected biological characteristics
in leukaemia cell lines and normal controls. Methodology: Expression of 28 PP genes associated
with early fetal/embryonic development, HOX-related genes, hematopoiesis and aerobic glycolysis/
hypoxia genes and 36 GP genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, chromatin
remodelling and cell motility were examined in B-lymphoid (BV173, Reh and RS4;11) and myeloid
(HL-60, K562) leukaemia cell lines after 72h in culture as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells
from healthy controls (N=5) using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cell
cycle profiles were analysed on flow cytometry while MTT cytotoxicity assay was used to determine
drug resistance to epirubicin. Results: Genes expressed significantly higher in B-lymphoid leukaemia
cell lines compared to healthy controls were mostly of the GP library i.e. oxidative phosphorylation
(3/10), protein synthesis (4/11), chromatin remodelling (3/3) and actin cytoskeleton genes (1/5). Only
two genes with significant difference were from the PP library. Cancer associated genes, HSPA9 and
PSPH (GP library) and BCAP31 (PP library) were significantly higher in the B-lymphoid leukemia cell
lines. No significant difference was observed between myeloid cell lines and healthy controls. This
may also be due heterogeneity of cell lines studied. PBMC from healthy controls were not in cell cycle.
G2/M profiles and growth curves showed B-lymphoid cells just reaching plateau after 72 hour culture
while myeloid cells were declining. IC50 values from cytotoxicity assay revealed myeloid cell lines had
an average 13-fold higher drug resistance to epirubicin compared to B-lymphoid cell lines. Only CCL1,
was expressed at least two-fold higher in myeloid compared to B-lymphoid cell lines. In contrast,
MTRNR2, EEF1A1, PTMA, HLA-DR, C6orf115, PBX3, ENPP4, SELL, and IL3Ra were expressed
more than 2-fold higher in B-lymphoid compared to myeloid cell lines studied here. Conclusion: Thus,
B-lymphoid leukaemia cell lines here exhibited active, proliferating characteristics closer to GP genes.
Higher expression of several genes in B-lymphoid compared to myeloid leukaemia cell lines may be
useful markers to study biological differences including drug resistance between lineages.
Little is known about the sero-prevalence of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibody levels among medical students in Malaysia. They too, just like other health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of contracting and transmitting diphtheria. Fortunately, this can be prevented by giving a specific vaccine: the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Nonetheless, data from local or regional surveys are needed before any decision is made by the respective authorities. General objective: We studied the epidemiology of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibody levels and vaccination history amongst medical students and staff in Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Specific objectives: We determined the level of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibodies amongst pre-clinical students and staff. Methodology: A total of 152 sera were collected from subjects aged 19 to 63, and diphtheria anti-toxoid levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: One hundred and fifty-two (94.4%) blood samples out of 161 participants were successfully withdrawn, which comprised 105 (69.1%) and 47 (30.9%) medical students and staff, respectively. A total of 77.6% and the other 22.4% of the subjects had full and basic protection, respectively. Higher levels were predominant amongst males and they were 1.3 times more protected than females in 20-29 year-old group (85.1% vs 66.2%; odd ratios 1.25 [95% CI 1.03-1.50]; P=0.03). No significant difference in the levels of immunity among subjects for ethnicity and academic position (P>0.05). Recommendations: Level of full protection against diphtheria toxin should be clearly defined by broad population based studies using several comparable detection methods. Medical students and staff with basic protection should be closely monitored or should be given a booster dose for those who are at high risk of acquiring the disease. Thus, a standard degree of coverage should be clearly determined for health workers to prevent a potential outbreak. Conclusion: Students and staff possess immunity towards diptheria toxin however the level of full protective antibody is yet to be determined in future.
Introduction: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the frequent causes of hospitalization in children under the age of five, particularly in a rural setting. This study was conducted to determine the epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis in indigenous children admitted to a rural district hospital in Sarawak. Methods: A retrospective review of indigenous paediatrics cases of acute gastroenteritis
admitted to the ward of Serian District Hospital, a rural district hospital in Sarawak, between the years
2006-2007. The data was collected from the patients’ case notes, obtained with permission from the
hospital management. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: During the study period, 234 indigenous children with acute gastroenteritis were admitted with the highest prevalence in 2006 (53.4%). The findings showed higher prevalence was found in children aged 3 years and below (76.5%) and male (56.4%) The minimum duration of hospital stay is 1 day, and the maximum stay is 5 days. The clinical findings showed that the majority of the cases presented with vomiting, diarrhea, dry mouth and tongue, sunken eye, with the majority (76%) reported having mild dehydration. The most common treatment used is oral rehydration solutions (85.4%), followed by intravenous bolus or drip (82.3%), paracetamol (79%) and antibiotic (36.2%). Peak incidence of admissions was between November to January. About 38.5% of the AGE cases admitted were found to be underweight (weight for- age below -2SD). Conclusion: The findings indicated children aged 3 years and below are the most vulnerable to AGE and malnutrition could be one of the predisposing factors. The peak incidence during the raining season at the end of the year indicated a possible relationship between AGE and seasonal type of virus infection. Prevention in the form of proper hygiene at the household level probably will prove to be useful.
Background: In Malaysia, the prevalence of hypertension amongst adults aged 30 years and above has increased from 32.9% in 1996 to 40.5% in 2004 and to 42.6% in 2006. Information on the prevalence of hypertension among adolescents is lacking.
Objective: to determine the prevalence of hypertension among Malay secondary school students in Putrajaya.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The sampling frame consisted of a list of all the 12 secondary schools in Putrajaya. Three schools were selected using table of random numbers. All Malay students aged 13 years old to 17 years old from the three selected school students were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured after the respondents had rested for at least 5 minutes using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Three blood pressure measurements were taken for each respondent. Systolic blood pressure [SBP] was defined as the average of three SBP readings and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] was defined as the average of three DBP readings. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18.
Results: The overall mean SBP and DBP were 108.9 mmHg and 63.2 mmHg respectively. The prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension among the male was 16.2% and 12.9% respectively as compared to 5.8% and 10.2% respectively in the females. The overall prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 11.1% and 11.6% respectively. The prevalence increased with age (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and SBP (r = 0.52, r2 = 0.27, p= 0.001) and BMI and DBP (r = 0.38, r2 = 0.15, p= 0.001). The mean SBP was significantly higher in males (111.7 mmHg) as compared to 106 mmHg in females (p<0.001). The mean DBP in males (63.5 mmHg) was slightly higher as compared to 62.9 mmHg in females but the difference was not significant.
Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension is high. There is an urgent need for implementation of a comprehensive CVD prevention program and routine blood pressure measurements should be taken in school children to improve the detection, prevention and treatment of hypertension
Keywords: Prevalence, Hypertension, Adolescents, Putrajaya, Malaysia
Introduction: In Malaysia, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been the leading cause of death for the past 40 years. Hypertension is the leading treatable risk factor for CVD mortality.
Objectives: to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among University Putra Malaysia staff.
Methods: A Cross sectional study design was used in this study. The sample was selected using table of random numbers. Two blood pressure measurements were taken from respondents aged 30 years and above. Data on socio-demographic variables and lifestyle-related risk factors were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Weight and height measurements were also taken.
Results: Out of 517 respondents selected, 454 subjects agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 87.8%. The overall mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for 454 respondents was 126.2 mmHg and 80.17 mmHg respectively. The mean SBP was significantly higher in males (129.68 mmHg) as compared to the females (122.65 mmHg). The mean SBP and DBP significantly increased with age in both males and females (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between SBP and BMI (r = 0.55, r2 = 0.30 p <0.001) and diastolic blood pressure and BMI (r = 0.53, r2 = 0.28, p <0.001). The overall prevalence of hypertension was 34.4% and 33.9% had pre hypertension. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, family history of hypertension, BMI and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension is high. There is an urgent need for implementation of a comprehensive CVD prevention program. Routine blood pressure measurements should be taken to improve the detection, prevention and treatment of hypertension.
Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Risk Factors, University Staff, Prevalence
Introduction: Help-seeking pathway in psychiatry is the important link between the onset of a mental disorder and mental health service provision. Understanding of the help-seeking pathway can help us to device more effective strategies for early detection and treatment.
Objectives: To determine the help-seeking pathways and treatment delaying factors of in-patients with first-episode psychosis in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). Methods: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive study of 50 in-patients with first-episode psychosis in HKL. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Clinical Version for Axis I Disorders (SCID-CV) was used for establishing diagnosis. Socio-demographic data, information on help-seeking pathways, and treatment delaying factors were determined through face-to-face interview and semi-structured questionnaires.
Results: The number of non-psychiatric helpseeking
contacts prior to first consultation with psychiatric service ranged from 0 to 10. The mean number of contacts was 2.3 ( 2.6), and median was 1 (IQR = 0 to 3). About a third of them (32%) had three or more non-psychiatric contacts. The most common point of first non-psychiatric contact was with traditional healer 24 (48%), followed by general practitioners 12 (24%), and only 14 (28%) of them sought help directly from psychiatric service. The most common reason reported for delay in seeking psychiatric treatment was, “not aware that changes were related to mental illness” (74%).
Conclusions: History of contacts with traditional healers was common among in-patients with first episode psychosis in HKL. Treatment delay was mainly contributed by factors related to lack of awareness on psychosis. More strategic mental health education program is needed for early detection and treatment of psychosis.
Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of life events among parasuicide patients
with the prevalence of similar life events among age, sex and race matched patients with non-chronic
medical illness. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study using convenience sampling method
was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur for a period of three and a half months. A total of 50 patients
admitted consecutively after an episode of parasuicide and who fulfilled criteria for entry into the study
agreed to participate. For each case one age-, sex- and race-matched control was selected from the list of patients who were admitted to the same hospital for non-chronic medical illness. Result: Statistical analysis showed that compared with medically ill patients, parasuicide patients had significantly higher prevalence of threatening life events six months (p
Preventive fogging is defined as space spraying of insecticide against mosquitoes in order to prevent outbreak of mosquito borne infection. Despite provision of various preventive andcontrol activities against dengue and chikungunya infection by Ministry of Health Guideline, the detail on preventive fogging has not yet specified. However, this has been adopted by certain institutions as part of the routine strategies against dengue outbreak. A study on preventive fogging was conducted in one of the hostels in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The research was done for 16 weeks in which one routine fogging activity was done at the mid period of study. The main objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of preventive fogging activities against Aedes mosquitoes and to identify the distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in the area. Method: The fogging activity was carried out by the management staff as part of their preventive measures in the student hostels. Ovitrap was used as an indicator to monitor the impact of fogging activity and its continuous surveillance was monitored weekly. The ovitraps were placed indoors and outdoors. Species identification was carried out in the laboratory. The SPSS program was used to analyse the statistical data on the effectiveness of fogging activity. Larval count (indoors and outdoors) and ovitrap index (OI) readings were identified as ovitrap surveillance data for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that Aedes albopictus was the only species of the genus Aedes found in this hostel. The area had been highly infested by Ae. Albopictus as indicated by high Ovitrap Index ranging between 48.33% to 90.00%. The mean (SD) of Ovitrap Index was reduced from 71.67% (12.73%) (before the preventive fogging), to 69.42% (14.40%) (after the fogging). Overall reduction in mosquito and larval density was also observed between pre and post fogging activity in this study. Conclusion: The implementation of preventive fogging has favourably reduced the dengue vector population up to 5 weeks after the introduction of preventive fogging. However, sole dependency on preventive fogging may lead to insecticide resistance. Revisiting the policy on preventive fogging; and identifying it as an additional tool for preventing dengue infection in higher learning institutions are recommended.
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the urban poor and its health related factors in Selangor. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the community of Selangor. Data was collected from January 2006 to June 2006. Three out of nine districts were selected to be involved in the study, which were Klang, Kuala Langat and Petaling. A Multistage Stratified Proportionate Systematic Random Sampling was used for this study. The sampling was carried out by the Statistics Department of Malaysia. The survey frame was based on the information gathered from the Population and Housing Census in year 2000. The respondents were interviewed by trained research assistants using a structured pre-tested standardized questionnaire prepared in Malay and English languages. A monthly income of RM706 and less was used to define urban poor based on the guidelines given by the Economy Planning Unit of Malaysia (2004). SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the data. Out of 2535 respondents interviewed in this study, 2491 respondents answered the questionnaire completely (response rate 98.3%). Out of 2491 respondents, 202 (8.1%) had a monthly income of RM706 and less. Analysis of the urban poor respondents found that majority were aged between 18 to 40 years old (55.9%), and 29.7% had diagnosed medical illnesses, where hypertension, diabetes and asthma were the most common illnesses at 12.4%, 10.9% and 5.0% respectively. About 10% of the urban poor respondents had physical disabilities such as blurring of vision (7.9%), hearing problems (1.0%) and other disabilities (1.0%).
Introduction: Iontophoresis of vasoactive substances such as acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) combined with Laser Doppler fluximetry (LDF) is a non-invasive tool used to determine microvascular endothelial function. This study aims to test the effect of sodium chloride on
non-specific vasodilatation when used as a vehicle in the process of iontophoresis. This study also aims to define the number of current pulses needed to get the maximum effect during iontophoresis with ACh and SNP using low current strength. Methods: The experiment was conducted in five healthy females. Baseline skin perfusion was taken before administration of seven current pulses. Current strength of 0.007 mA and current density of 0.01 mA/cm2 were used. Acetylcholine was used to assess endothelial dependent vasodilatation, while SNP was used to assess endothelial independent vasodilatation. The mean skin perfusion (AU) responses to the iontophoresis of ACh at the anodal and SNP at the cathode leads were recorded. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was used as a vehicle to obtain concentration of 1% for both ACh and SNP. Iontophoresis of pure vehicle (NaCl) was conducted on a separate day to observe the effect of vehicle only on the iontophoresis process at both anode and cathode. Results: Iontophoresis of NaCl showed no significant increase in perfusion compared to baseline at both anode and cathode. Significant increases in skin perfusion were observed with SNP and ACh; a plateau of ACh was reached from the 3rd pulse onwards; while the plateau of SNP was reached from the 4th pulse onwards. Conclusion: NaCl could be used as a vehicle for Ach and SNP during iontophoresis as it did not cause non-specific vasodilatation. Using five current pulses are adequate for iontophoresis of ACh and SNP to assess microvascular endothelial function.
The Rohingya is a group of refugees from Myanmar who have been residing in Malaysia since the 1980s. At present, there is no published information on health and nutritional status of refugee children
in Malaysia. This study was conducted to assess nutritional status of the Rohingya children aged
6 months to 12 years old (N=87) and to determine the associations between nutritional status with
socio-demographic, dietary diversity and health (birth weight, immunization and childhood illness)
variables. Children were measured for weight and height while their guardians were interviewed for
socio-demographic, dietary diversity and health information. About 27.5% of the Rohingya children
were underweight, 11.5% stunted, 16.1% thin and 12.6% at risk of overweight and overweight. The
percentage of children with low birth weight (< 2.5 kg) and no immunization was 17.8% and 11.5%,
respectively. Fever (67.8%) and flu (62.1%) were the most common childhood illnesses reported in
previous month with 44-75% of the children with these illnesses did not receive any medical treatment.
The mean dietary diversity score was 8.9+3.2 out of a possible 14, with a higher score indicating a
more diverse diet. There were significant correlations between frequency of immunization received
by the children with weight-for-age-z score (rs=0.27, p
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are tumors found predominantly in the elderly. Most of the cases reported were from patients of more than 50 years old. In our case, it affects a young patient, a 26 year old lady who has a history of a severely burnt and scarred face since childhood. She represents a rare case of a high grade aggressive tumor involving her right eyelid and right parotid gland.