OBJECTIVES: We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis to evaluate the association of pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) with CD4 recovery, virological failure (VF) and cardiovascular risk disease (CVD) markers among people living with HIV (PLHIV).
METHODS: Participants who were enrolled between January 2003 and March 2019 in a regional Asia HIV cohort with weight and height measurements prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were included. Factors associated with mean CD4 increase were analysed using repeated-measures linear regression. Time to first VF after 6 months on ART and time to first development of CVD risk markers were analysed using Cox regression models. Sensitivity analyses were done adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds.
RESULTS: Of 4993 PLHIV (66% male), 62% had pre-treatment BMI in the normal range (18.5-25.0 kg/m2 ), while 26%, 10% and 2% were underweight ( 30 kg/m2 ), respectively. Both higher baseline and time-updated BMI were associated with larger CD4 gains compared with normal BMI. After adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds, higher baseline BMIs of 23-27.5 and > 27.5 kg/m2 were associated with larger CD4 increases of 15.6 cells/µL [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-28.3] and 28.8 cells/µL (95% CI: 6.6-50.9), respectively, compared with normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m2 ). PLHIV with BMIs of 25-30 and > 30 kg/m2 were 1.27 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.47) and 1.61 times (95% CI: 1.13-2.24) more likely to develop CVD risk factors. No relationship between pre-treatment BMI and VF was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: High pre-treatment BMI was associated with better immune reconstitution and CVD risk factor development in an Asian PLHIV cohort.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.