• 1 College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • 2 College of Education, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
  • 3 College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • 4 College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • 5 College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • 6 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Int J Surg Open, 2020;26:125-136.
PMID: 34568614 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijso.2020.08.017


The current rampant coronavirus infection in humans, commonly known as COVID-19, a pandemic that may cause mortality in humans, has been declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO). The morbidity and mortality rates due to the pandemic are increasing rapidly worldwide, with the USA most affected by the disease. The source COVID-19 is not absolutely clear; however, the disease may be transmitted by either by COVID-19-positive individuals or from a contaminated environment. In this review, we focused on how the COVID-19 virus is transmitted in the community. An extensive literature search was conducted using specific keywords and criteria. Based on the published report, it is concluded that COVID-19 is primarily transmitted human-to-human via oral and respiratory aerosols and droplets with the virus-contaminated environment play a lesser role in the propagation of disease. Healthcare providers and the elderly with comorbidities are especially susceptible to the infection.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.