• 1 Centre of Advanced Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Center for Nanotechnology and Sustainability, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117581 Singapore
  • 3 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran, Iran
Biodes Manuf, 2021 Oct 26.
PMID: 34721937 DOI: 10.1007/s42242-021-00170-3


Abstract: Commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys have been among the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications since the 1950s. Due to the excellent mechanical tribological properties, corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and antibacterial properties of titanium, it is getting much attention as a biomaterial for implants. Furthermore, titanium promotes osseointegration without any additional adhesives by physically bonding with the living bone at the implant site. These properties are crucial for producing high-strength metallic alloys for biomedical applications. Titanium alloys are manufactured into the three types of α, β, and α + β. The scientific and clinical understanding of titanium and its potential applications, especially in the biomedical field, are still in the early stages. This review aims to establish a credible platform for the current and future roles of titanium in biomedicine. We first explore the developmental history of titanium. Then, we review the recent advancement of the utility of titanium in diverse biomedical areas, its functional properties, mechanisms of biocompatibility, host tissue responses, and various relevant antimicrobial strategies. Future research will be directed toward advanced manufacturing technologies, such as powder-based additive manufacturing, electron beam melting and laser melting deposition, as well as analyzing the effects of alloying elements on the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of titanium. Moreover, the role of titania nanotubes in regenerative medicine and nanomedicine applications, such as localized drug delivery system, immunomodulatory agents, antibacterial agents, and hemocompatibility, is investigated, and the paper concludes with the future outlook of titanium alloys as biomaterials.

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* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.