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  1. Mohamed Ibrahim N, Lau YH, Ariffin N, Md Desa SH, Azizan E, Chin LK, et al.
    PMID: 32922823 DOI: 10.1186/s40673-020-00120-2
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are highly heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases causing progressive cerebellar dysfunction. We report the first description of relative frequencies of the common SCA mutations and of phenotypic characteristics of SCA3 patients among Malaysians. Pooled data from adult Malaysian patients who had undergone genetic testing for SCA 1,2,3,6 and 7 at UKM Medical Centre and Institute for Medical Research from 2017 to 2020 were analysed. Fifteen patients with SCA 3 had detailed clinical phenotype evaluation using Inventory for Non -Ataxia Signs (INAS) and Ataxia Severity evaluation using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Out of 152 adults patients who were tested for common SCA mutations, 64(42.1%) patients were tested positive for either SCA 1,2,3,6 or 7. Of the 64 positive cases, 44 (68.9%) patients were diagnosed with SCA 3 followed by SCA 2 in 13(20.3%) patients and SCA 1 in 5 (7.8%) patients. Our findings suggest that Malay race had the highest frequency of SCA (n = 34, 50%), followed by the Chinese (n = 16, 23.5%) and approximately 60 (93.8%) SCA patients had first degree family history. In conclusion, SCA 3 is the commonest SCA in Malaysia, followed by SCA 2 and SCA 1. It is important to develop a proper registry of SCA patients to further understand the true prevalence and local impact of the disease in Malaysia.
  2. Lau YH, Mawardi AS, Zain NR, Viswanathan S
    Pract Neurol, 2021 Oct;21(5):439-441.
    PMID: 34039751 DOI: 10.1136/practneurol-2021-002942
    A 33-year-old man with a history of chronic toluene abuse through glue sniffing, developed tremors, cerebellar signs and cognitive decline. MR scan of the brain showed global cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with symmetrical T2-weighted hypointensities in the basal ganglia, thalami and midbrain. After stopping glue sniffing, his tremors, ataxia of gait, speech and cognition partially improved. Early recognition and intervention of toluene-induced leukodystrophy could prevent ongoing morbidity and premature mortality.
  3. Lau YH, Lau KM, Ibrahim NM
    J Mov Disord, 2021 Sep;14(3):177-183.
    PMID: 34315207 DOI: 10.14802/jmd.21034
    The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a serious global health crisis. Increasing evidence suggests that elderly individuals with underlying chronic diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), are particularly vulnerable to this infection. Changes in the routine care of PD patients should be implemented carefully without affecting the quality provided. The utilization of telemedicine for clinical consultation, assessment and rehabilitation has also been widely recommended. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide recommendations in the management of PD during the pandemic as well as in the early phase of vaccination programs to highlight the potential sequelae and future perspectives of vaccination and further research in PD. Even though a year has passed since COVID- 19 emerged, most of us are still facing great challenges in providing a continuum of care to patients with chronic neurological disorders. However, we should regard this health crisis as an opportunity to change our routine approach in managing PD patients and learn more about the impact of SARS-CoV-2. Hopefully, PD patients can be vaccinated promptly, and more detailed research related to PD in COVID-19 can still be carried out.
  4. Lau YH, Mohd Unit H, Lee LP, Loh WK, Hiew FL
    Clin Neurophysiol Pract, 2020;5:112-117.
    PMID: 32613149 DOI: 10.1016/j.cnp.2020.05.001
    Objective: We detailed the electrophysiological patterns of peripheral nerve temporal dispersion across spectrum of POEMS syndrome and Castleman disease (CD).

    Methods: Compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) duration of 3 patients with POEMS syndrome and 2 with hyaline vascular type CD without clonal plasma cell dyscrasia were retrospectively analysed.

    Results: Median and ulnar nerves distal CMAP duration were prolonged in all patients irrespective of plasma cell dyscrasia or M protein. All lower limbs distal CMAP responses were absent. Greatest distal CMAP duration prolongation was observed in median nerves for POEMS syndrome (17.0 ms, 158% upper limit normal) and in ulnar nerves for CD (9.8 ms, 47% upper limit normal). Distal/proximal CMAP duration ratio of <0.7 were seen in 33% of median and ulnar nerves studied among POEMS syndrome. Among nerves with ratio >0.7, all had distal CMAP duration prolongation (Range 7%-158% of upper limit normal).

    Conclusions: Abnormal distal CMAP dispersion is not uncommon in POEMS syndrome and CD without clonal plasma cell dyscrasia or M protein. POEMS syndrome has greater distal CMAP duration in median and ulnar nerves, particularly in median nerve that can reach up to 150% of upper limit normal, compared to <50% in CD.

    Significance: Detailed electrophysiological analysis of distal CMAP duration may help in distinguishing POEMS syndrome and CD.

  5. Lau YH, Chinnasami S
    J Neurovirol, 2021 02;27(1):183-185.
    PMID: 33528825 DOI: 10.1007/s13365-021-00950-8
    The association of dengue infection (DI) with atypical neurological manifestations was first reported in 1976. DENV-2 and DENV-3 serotypes are mostly related to neurological problems. DI has shown an overall risk of 21 autoimmune diseases, and 4% may develop neuromuscular complications. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind myasthenia gravis (MG) occurring during DI is thought to be linked to the neurotrophic effect of the infection. We report a unique case of DENV-1 infection presenting with bilateral ptosis and dysphagia in a previously healthy adult.
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