Displaying all 7 publications

  1. Chew KK, Low KL, Sharif Zein SH, McPhail DS, Gerhardt LC, Roether JA, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2011 Apr;4(3):331-9.
    PMID: 21316621 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.10.013
    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).
  2. Low KL, Tan SH, Zein SH, Roether JA, Mouriño V, Boccaccini AR
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2010 Jul;94(1):273-86.
    PMID: 20336722 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.31619
    A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
  3. Low KL, Nurul-Ain M, Che Hamzah J, Wan Hitam WH
    Cureus, 2022 Oct;14(10):e30755.
    PMID: 36447705 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.30755
    Simultaneous oculomotor and trochlear nerve palsy in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) is rare. We report a 78-year-old lady who presented with right ptosis while receiving treatment for HZO keratouveitis. Examination showed crusted vesicular lesions on the right V1 dermatome with right complete ptosis and limited right eye extraocular movement on adduction, supraduction, infraduction, and intorsion. There was mild right eye anterior chamber inflammation, while bilateral fundus examinations were normal. Other neurological and systemic examinations were unremarkable. Neuroimaging was also normal. Corticosteroids treatment was started, in addition to oral acyclovir, given for a total course of six weeks. Her ocular motor cranial neuropathy (OMCN) was partially resolved during the follow-up at one year. OMCN can be an isolated complication of HZO, or it may be associated with other neurological complications. Although recovery for OMCN is anticipated, the patient should be closely monitored for the possibility of developing other devastating neurological complications.
  4. Low KL, Lai YP, Alias R, Che Hamzah J
    Cureus, 2022 Nov;14(11):e31516.
    PMID: 36532911 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.31516
    Epithelial conjunctival malignancies are one of the most prevalent ocular surface tumors. Primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the conjunctiva is extremely rare. We report the case of a 67-year-old Indian gentleman who presented with a fleshy conjunctival lesion for one year on his right eye. Examination revealed a lightly pigmented conjunctival mass adjacent to the limbus. The surface was irregular and non-ulcerated with few feeder vessels. The working diagnosis was ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). A wide excisional biopsy using the no-touch technique and double-freeze-thaw cryotherapy to the conjunctival margins was performed. The bare scleral area was covered with an amniotic membrane. Histopathological examination revealed a basaloid cell neoplasm favoring BCC, and a tumor-free margin was achieved. Three cycles of topical mitomycin-C 0.02% were prescribed as adjunct chemotherapy postoperatively. There was no evidence of recurrence three months after treatment. The primary BCC of the conjunctiva is unusual and can resemble OSSN. Therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with atypical features of OSSN.
  5. Low KL, Khoo HW, Koh LL
    Environ Monit Assess, 1991 Oct;19(1-3):319-33.
    PMID: 24233949 DOI: 10.1007/BF00401321
    Marine biofouling causes problems to marine structure and obstructs condenser tubes in cooling systems which use sea water as the coolant. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the seasonal ecology of biofouling organisms such as the green mussel, Perna viridis, the dominant fouling species in the Eastern Johore Straits at the Senoko Power Station. The spawning time and its relationship with environmental conditions were studied. The physical, chemical and biological conditions of the sea at Senoko were monitored for a year. Settling slides were used to study the fouling succession in different monsoon seasons. The study showed that there were two main spawning peaks for the green mussel and that these peaks occurred during the intermonsoon months of November and April. These peaks were also correlated with the bimodal patterns for salinity, dissolved oxyen, bivalve veliger larval density and total plankton biomass of the Eastern Johore Strait water. Succession patterns were similar during the two monsoon seasons, however, the rate of fouling was probably greater during the southwest monsoon months. It is therefore advisable that the control or reduction of biofouling in Eastern Johore Strait should take into account the seasonal fluctuations and spawning of the fouling organisms.
  6. Wong YK, Low KL, Pooke TG
    J Chiropr Med, 2022 Jun;21(2):83-96.
    PMID: 35774631 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcm.2022.02.003
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between patients' sociodemographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, and education background) and dimensions of patients' trust in chiropractic doctors in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the International Medical University Healthcare Chiropractic Center with a total of 302 respondents. Self-administered questionnaires were enclosed in an envelope and passed to participants by the researchers. Descriptive statistics are presented in tables and figures. Each dimension of the patients' trust was compared against the sociodemographic factors. The variables included were sex, age, ethnicity, and education background, along with their dimensions of trust.

    RESULTS: There were 106 male respondents (35.1%) and 196 female respondents (64.9%) between 21 and 40 years of age. In all of the trust dimensions, education background was the only statistically significant variable (P < .05).

    CONCLUSION: Several sociodemographic factors were associated highly with the trust dimensions explored. Patients' education background was the only sociodemographic factor to show a statistically significant relationship to all 10 trust dimensions. Sex, age, and ethnicity showed significant associations with some of the trust dimensions explored in this study.

  7. Low KL, Idris A, Mohd Yusof N
    Food Chem, 2020 Mar 01;307:125631.
    PMID: 31634761 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125631
    Lutein available in the current market is derived from marigold petals. However, extensive studies showed that microalgae are rich in lutein content and potentially exploitable for its dietary and other industrial applications. In this study, microwave assisted binary phase solvent extraction method (MABS) was the novel protocol being developed and optimized to achieve maximum lutein recovery from microalgae Scenedesmus sp. biomass. Results showed that 60% potassium hydroxide solution with acetone in the ratio of 0.1 (ml/ml) was the ideal binary phase solvent composition. Empirical model developed using response surface methodology revealed highest lutein content can be recovered through MABS extraction method at 55 °C treatment temperature, 36 min in extraction time, 0.7 (mg/ml) for biomass to solvent ratio, 250 Watt microwave power and 250 rpm stirring speed. This optimized novel protocol had increased the amount of lutein recovered by 130% and shorten the overall extraction time by 3-folds.
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