The blood clam, Tegillarca granosa, is widely cultivated in China. We isolated 6 microsatellite loci from T. granosa and used them to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of 5 widely distributed populations of blood clam collected from eastern and southeastern China. The allele number per locus varied from 4 to 9, and the polymorphism information content value was 0.301 to 0.830. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.304 to 0.460 and 0.556 to 0.621, respectively; the population from Yueqing had the smallest observed heterozygosity. In the neighbor-joining tree, Shandong, Fenghua and Yueqing populations clustered together, and there was geographic divergence between Shandong and Guangxi populations. Some microsatellite loci that were isolated from these mainland China samples were not found in blood clams collected from Malaysia.