Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

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  1. Rezayi M, Farjami Z, Hosseini ZS, Ebrahimi N, Abouzari-Lotf E
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(39):4675-4680.
    PMID: 30636591 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190111144525
    Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection in various cancers. In fact, miRNAs have key roles in carcinogenicity process such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second cause of death in the world with an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. So, early diagnosis of cancer is critical for successful treatment. To date, several selective and sensitive laboratory-based methods have been applied for the detection of circulating miRNA, but a simple, short assay time and low-cost method such as a biosensor method as an alternative approach to monitor cancer biomarker is required. In this review, we have highlighted recent advances in biosensors for circulating miRNA detection.
  2. Md S, Karim S, Saker SR, Gie OA, Hooi LC, Yee PH, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(19):2222-2232.
    PMID: 32175832 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200316154300
    Rotigotine is a non-ergoline, high lipophilic dopamine agonist. It is indicated as the first-line therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). However, the precise mechanism of rotigotine is yet to be known. Rotigotine has similar safety and tolerability to the other oral non-ergolinic dopamine antagonists in clinical trials, which include nausea, dizziness and somnolence. Neupro® was the first marketed transdermal patch formulation having rotigotine. The transdermal delivery system is advantageous as it enables continuous administration of the drug, thus providing steady-state plasma drug concentration for 24-hours. Intranasal administration of rotigotine allows the drug to bypass the blood-brain barrier enabling it to reach the central nervous system within minutes. Rotigotine can also be formulated as an extended-release microsphere for injection. Some challenges remain in other routes of rotigotine administration such as oral, parenteral and pulmonary, whereby resolving these challenges will be beneficial to patients as they are less invasive and comfortable in terms of administration. This review compiles recent work on rotigotine delivery, challenges and its future perspective.
  3. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

  4. Sridevi V, Naveen P, Karnam VS, Reddy PR, Arifullah M
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):802-815.
    PMID: 32942973 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999200917154747
    BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are non-endocrine, non-steroidal secondary derivatives of plants and consumed through a plant-based diet also named as "dietary estrogens". The major sources of phytoestrogens are soy and soy-based foods, flaxseed, chickpeas, green beans, dairy products, etc. The dietary inclusion of phytoestrogen based foods plays a crucial role in the maintenance of metabolic syndrome cluster, including obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, postmenopausal ailments and their complications. In recent days, phytoestrogens are the preferred molecules for hormone replacement therapy. On the other hand, they act as endocrine disruptors via estrogen receptor-mediated pathways. These effects are not restricted to adult males or females and identified even in development.

    OBJECTIVE: Since phytoestrogenic occurrence is high at daily meals for most people worldwide, they focused to study for its beneficiary effects towards developing pharmaceutical drugs for treating various metabolic disorders by observing endocrine disruption.

    CONCLUSION: The present review emphasizes the pros and cons of phytoestrogens on human health, which may help to direct the pharmaceutical industry to produce various phytoestrongen based drugs against various metabolic disorders.

  5. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Yee GS, Bhattamisra SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2828-2841.
    PMID: 31333092 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190716102037
    Adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, released from different cells within the body to act on vasculature and immunoescape. The physiological action on the proliferation of tumour cell has been reported by the presence of high concentration of adenosine within the tumour microenvironment, which results in the progression of the tumour, even leading to metastases. The activity of adenosine exclusively depends upon the interaction with four subtypes of heterodimeric G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors (AR), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3-ARs on the cell surface. Research evidence supports that the activation of those receptors via specific agonist or antagonist can modulate the proliferation of tumour cells. The first category of AR, A1 is known to play an antitumour activity via tumour-associated microglial cells to prevent the development of glioblastomas. A2AAR are found in melanoma, lung, and breast cancer cells, where tumour proliferation is stimulated due to inhibition of the immune response via inhibition of natural killer cells cytotoxicity, T cell activity, and tumourspecific CD4+/CD8+ activity. Alternatively, A2BAR helps in the development of tumour upon activation via upregulation of angiogenin factor in the microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of MAPK and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation activity. Lastly, A3AR is expressed in low levels in normal cells whereas the expression is upregulated in tumour cells, however, agonists to this receptor inhibit tumour proliferation through modulation of Wnt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Several researchers are in search for potential agents to modulate the overexpressed ARs to control cancer. Active components of A2AAR antagonists and A3AR agonists have already entered in Phase-I clinical research to prove their safety in human. This review focused on novel research targets towards the prevention of cancer progression through stimulation of the overexpressed ARs with the hope to protect lives and advance human health.
  6. Hussain MA, Ashraf MU, Muhammad G, Tahir MN, Bukhari SNA
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(16):2377-2388.
    PMID: 27779081 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160928143328
    The therapy of various diseases by the drugs entrapped in calixarene derivatives is gaining attraction of researchers nowadays. Calixarenes are macrocyclic nano-baskets which belong to cavitands class of host-guest chemistry. They are the marvelous hosts with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. Calixarene and its derivatives develop inclusion complexes with various types of drugs and vitamins for their sustained/targeted release. Calixarene and its derivatives are used as carriers for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antipsychotic drugs. They are the important biocompatible receptors to improve solubility, chemical reactivity and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs in supramolecular chemistry. This review focuses on the calixarene and its derivatives as the state-of-the-art in host-guest interactions for important drugs. We have also critically evaluated calixarenes for the development of prodrugs.
  7. Lim TS, Chan SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(43):6480-6489.
    PMID: 27669969 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160923111924
    BACKGROUND: Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries.

    METHODS: Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection.

    RESULTS: This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases.

    CONCLUSION: We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future.

  8. Tekade RK, Maheshwari RG, Sharma PA, Tekade M, Chauhan AS
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(31):4614-36.
    PMID: 26486147
    siRNA technology presents a helpful means of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Advancement in the field includes enhanced attentiveness in the characterization of target and off-target effects employing suitable controls and gene expression microarrays. These will permit expansion in the measurement of single and multiple target combinations and also permit comprehensive efforts to understand mammalian cell processes. Another fact is that the delivery of siRNA requires the creation of a nanoparticulate vector with controlled structural geometry and surface modalities inside the targeted cells. On the other hand, dendrimers represent the class of carrier system where massive control over size, shape and physicochemical properties makes this delivery vector exceptional and favorable in genetic transfection applications. The siRNA therapeutics may be incorporated inside the geometry of the density controlled dendrimers with the option of engineering the structure to the specific needs of the genetic material and its indication. The existing reports on the siRNA carrying and deliverance potential of dendrimers clearly suggest the significance of this novel class of polymeric architecture and certainly elevate the futuristic use of this highly branched vector as genetic material delivery system.
  9. Has ATC, Chebib M
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(17):1839-1844.
    PMID: 29766792 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180515123921
    GABAA receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels which mediate most inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. These receptors are pentameric assemblies of individual subunits, including α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, π, θ and ρ1-3. The majority of receptors are comprised of α, β and γ or δ subunits. Depending on the subunit composition, the receptors are located in either the synapses or extrasynaptic regions. The most abundant receptors are α1βγ2 receptors, which are activated and modulated by a variety of pharmacologically and clinically unrelated agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anaesthetics and neurosteroids, all of which bind at distinct binding sites located within the receptor complex. However, compared to αβγ, the binary αβ receptors lack a benzodiazepine α-γ2 interface. In pentameric αβ receptors, the third subunit is replaced with either an α1 or a β3 subunit leading to two distinct receptors that differ in subunit stoichiometry, 2α:3β or 3α:2β. The consequence of this is that 3α:2β receptors contain an α-α interface whereas 2α:3β receptors contain a β-β interface. Apart from the replacement of γ by α1 or β3 in binary receptors, the incorporation of ε subunit into GABAA receptors might be more complicated. As the ε subunit is not only capable of substituting the γ subunit, but also replacing the α/β subunits, receptors with altered stoichiometry and different pharmacological properties are produced. The different subunit arrangement of the receptors potentially constructs novel binding sites which may become new targets of the current or new drugs.
  10. Ng PQ, Ling LSC, Chellian J, Madheswaran T, Panneerselvam J, Kunnath AP, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(36):4580-4590.
    PMID: 32520681 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200610111013
    Many plant-based bioactive compounds have been serving as the origin of drugs since long ago and many of them have been proven to have medicinal value against various chronic diseases, including, cancer, arthritis, hepatic diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, their clinical applications have been limited due to their poor water solubility, stability, low bioavailability and extensive transformation due to the first-pass metabolism. The applications of nanocarriers have been proven to be able to improve the delivery of bioactive phytoconstituents, resulting in the enhancement of various pharmacokinetic properties and thereby increasing the therapeutic value of phytoconstituents. These biocompatible nanocarriers also exert low toxicity to healthy cells. This review focuses on the uses and applications of different types of nanocarriers to enhance the delivery of phytoconstituents for the treatment of various chronic diseases, along with comparisons related to bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nano phytoconstituents with native phytoconstituents.
  11. Liu S, Dang M, Lei Y, Ahmad SS, Khalid M, Kamal MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(37):4808-4814.
    PMID: 32264807 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200407161842
    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most well-known reason for disability in persons aged greater than 65 years worldwide. AD influences the part of the brain that controls cognitive and non-cognitive functions.

    OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on the screening of natural compounds for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE using a computational methodology.

    METHODS: We performed a docking-based virtual screening utilizing the 3D structure of AChE and BuChE to search for potential inhibitors for AD. In this work, a screened inhibitor Ajmalicine similarity search was carried out against a natural products database (Super Natural II). Lipinski rule of five was carried out and docking studies were performed between ligands and enzyme using 'Autodock4.2'.

    RESULTS: Two phytochemical compounds SN00288228 and SN00226692 were predicted for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The docking results revealed Ajmalicine, a prominent natural alkaloid, showing promising inhibitory potential against AChE and BuChE with the binding energy of -9.02 and -8.89 kcal/mole, respectively. However, SN00288228- AChE, and SN00226692-BuChE were found to have binding energy -9.88 and -9.54 kcal/mole, respectively. These selected phytochemical compounds showed better interactions in comparison to Ajmalicine with the target molecule.

    CONCLUSION: The current study verifies that SN00288228 and SN00226692 are more capable inhibitors of human AChE and BuChE as compared to Ajmalicine with reference to ΔG values.

  12. Gorain B, Rajeswary DC, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Kumbhar SA, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(19):2233-2246.
    PMID: 32167424 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200313125613
    Increasing incidence of demented patients around the globe with limited FDA approved conventional therapies requires pronounced research attention for the management of the demented conditions in the growing elderly population in the developing world. Dementia of Alzheimer's type is a neurodegenerative disorder, where conventional therapies are available for symptomatic treatment of the disease but possess several peripheral toxicities due to lack of brain targeting. Nanotechnology based formulations via intranasal (IN) routes of administration have shown to improve therapeutic efficacy of several therapeutics via circumventing blood-brain barrier and limited peripheral exposure. Instead of numerous research on polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers in the improvement of therapeutic chemicals and peptides in preclinical research, a step towards clinical studies still requires wide-ranging data on safety and efficacy. This review has focused on current approaches of nanocarrierbased therapies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the IN route for polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers for the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety. Moreover, the clinical application of IN nanocarrier-based delivery of therapeutics to the brain needs a long run; however, proper attention towards AD therapy via this platform could bring a new era for the AD patients.
  13. Gorain B, Al-Dhubiab BE, Nair A, Kesharwani P, Pandey M, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4404-4415.
    PMID: 34459377 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830095941
    The advancement of delivery tools for therapeutic agents has brought several novel formulations with increased drug loading, sustained release, targeted delivery, and prolonged efficacy. Amongst the several novel delivery approaches, multivesicular liposome has gained potential interest because this delivery system possesses the above advantages. In addition, this multivesicular liposomal delivery prevents degradation of the entrapped drug within the physiological environment while administered. The special structure of the vesicles allowed successful entrapment of hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic agents, including proteins and peptides. Furthermore, this novel formulation could maintain the desired drug concentration in the plasma for a prolonged period, which helps to reduce the dosing frequencies, improve bioavailability, and safety. This tool could also provide stability of the formulation, and finally gaining patient compliance. Several multivesicular liposomes received approval for clinical research, while others are at different stages of laboratory research. In this review, we have focused on the preparation of multivesicular liposomes along with their application in different ailments for the improvement of the performance of the entrapped drug. Moreover, the challenges of delivering multivesicular vesicles have also been emphasized. Overall, it could be inferred that multivesicular liposomal delivery is a platform of advanced drug delivery with improved efficacy and safety.
  14. Mozar FS, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(28):3283-3296.
    PMID: 30062957 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180730161721
    PEG-functionalized nanoparticles as carriers of chemotherapeutics agents have been explored with notable successes in preclinical and clinical stages of cancer treatment, with some already approved by FDA, namely PEGylated liposomes and polymers. Half-life extension of therapeutic agents through PEGylation process improves their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, thereby reducing their dosing frequency. Protein corona composition of PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) confers a tremendous influence on their surface characteristics which directly impact tumor accumulation and clearance properties of the drugs. By controlling the size and complexity of PEG molecules, as well as by attaching targeting moieties, the surface characteristics of NPs can be manipulated to improve their tumor uptake without sacrificing the circulation time. This review focuses on design and applications of PEGylated NPs for tumor targeted drug delivery in animal models and clinical setting.
  15. Tiash S, Chowdhury ME
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(37):5752-5759.
    PMID: 26864311
    Despite being widely used for treating cancer, chemotherapy is accompanied by numerous adverse effects as a result of systemic distribution and nonspecific interactions of the drugs with healthy tissues, eventually leading to therapeutic inefficacy and chemoresistance. Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) as one of the chemotherapeutic pro-drugs is activated in liver and used to treat breast cancer in high dose and in combination with other drugs. In an attempt to reduce the off-target effects and enhance the therapeutic efficacy, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles that had predominantly and size-dependently been localized in liver following intravenous administration, were employed to electrostatically immobilize Cyp and purposely deliver it to the liver for activation. Cyp-loaded particles formed by simple 30 min incubation at 37ºC of the DMEM (pH 7.4) medium containing CaCl2 and Cyp, enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity at different degrees depending on the cell types. The size of the particles could be tightly controlled by the amount of CaCl2 required to prepare the particles and thus the bio-distribution pattern inside different organs of the body. Unlike the small particles (~ 200 nm), the large size particles (~ 600 nm) which were more efficiently accumulated in liver, significantly reduced the tumor volume following intravenous injection in 4T1-induced murine breast cancer model at a very low dose (0.17 mg/Kg) of the drug initially added for complex formation, thus shedding light on the potential applications of the Cyp-loaded nano-formulations in the treatment of breast cancer.
  16. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Ibrahim OE, Daher AM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(16):2403-10.
    PMID: 27139374
    OBJECTIVES: -To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA) after tooth extraction in rat.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.

    RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).

    CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.

  17. Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(12):1845-1859.
    PMID: 28231756 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161027120043
    The incidence and mortality due to breast cancer is increasing worldwide. There is a constant quest to know the underlying molecular biology of breast cancer in order to arrive at diagnosis and plan better treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding and single stranded RNAs which influence the gene expression and physiological condition in any tumor. The miRNAs may act on different pathways in various cancers. Recently, there are research reports on various miRNAs being linked to breast cancers. The important miRNAs associated with breast cancers include miR-21, miR-155, miR-27a, miR-205, miR-145 and miR-320a. In the present review we discuss the role of miRNAs in breast cancer, its importance as diagnostic markers, prognosis and metastasis markers. We also highlight the role of miRNAs with regard to resistance to few anticancerous drugs such as Tamoxifen and Trastuzumab. The role of miRNA in resistance to treatment is one of the core issues discussed in the present review. Much information on the miRNA roles is available particularly in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting, because this protocol allows the rapid association of miRNA expression with the treatment response. This review opens the door for designing better therapeutic options in drug resistance cases in breast cancer.
  18. Soliman AM, Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2022 Jan 28.
    PMID: 35088658 DOI: 10.2174/1381612828666220128103725
    Gelatin is obtained via partial denaturation of collagen and is extensively used in various industries. The majority of gelatin utilized globally is derived from a mammalian source. Several health and religious concerns associated with porcine/bovine gelatin were reported. Therefore, gelatin from a marine source is widely being investigated for its efficiency and utilization in a variety of applications as a potential substitute for porcine/bovine gelatin. Although fish gelatin is less durable and possesses lower melting and gelling temperatures compared to mammal-derived gelatin, various modifications are being reported to promote its rheological and functional properties to be efficiently employed. The present review describes in detail the current innovative applications of fish gelatin involving the food industry, drug delivery and possible therapeutic applications. Gelatin bioactive molecules may be utilized as carriers for drug delivery. Due to its versatility, gelatin can be used in different carrier systems, such as microparticles, nanoparticles, fibers and hydrogels. The present review also provides a perspective on the other potential pharmaceutical applications of fish gelatin, such as tissue regeneration, antioxidant supplementation, antihypertensive and anticancer treatments.
  19. Hardwick J, Taylor J, Mehta M, Satija S, Paudel KR, Hansbro PM, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(1):2-14.
    PMID: 32723255 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200728151610
    Curcumin is a major curcuminoid present in turmeric. The compound is attributed to various therapeutic properties, which include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-malarial, and neuroprotection. Due to its therapeutic potential, curcumin has been employed for centuries in treating different ailments. Curcumin has been investigated lately as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. However, the mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its cytotoxic effects on malignant cells are still not fully understood. One of the main limiting factors in the clinical use of curcumin is its poor bioavailability and rapid elimination. Advancements in drug delivery systems such as nanoparticle-based vesicular drug delivery platforms have improved several parameters, namely, drug bioavailability, solubility, stability, and controlled release properties. The use of curcumin-encapsulated niosomes to improve the physical and pharmacokinetic properties of curcumin is one such approach. This review provides an up-to-date summary of nanoparticle-based vesicular drug carriers and their therapeutic applications. Specifically, we focus on niosomes as novel drug delivery formulations and their potential in improving the delivery of challenging small molecules, including curcumin. Overall, the applications of such carriers will provide a new direction for novel pharmaceutical drug delivery, as well as for biotechnology, nutraceutical, and functional food industries.
  20. Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, Satija S, Wadhwa R, Paudel KR, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5380-5392.
    PMID: 33198611 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999201116161143
    Cell Signaling pathways form an integral part of our existence that allows the cells to comprehend a stimulus and respond back. Such reactions to external cues from the environment are required and are essential to regulate the normal functioning of our body. Abnormalities in the system arise when there are errors developed in these signals, resulting in a complication or a disease. Presently, respiratory diseases contribute to being the third leading cause of morbidity worldwide. According to the current statistics, over 339 million people are asthmatic, 65 million are suffering from COPD, 2.3 million are lung cancer patients and 10 million are tuberculosis patients. This toll of statistics with chronic respiratory diseases leaves a heavy burden on society and the nation's annual health expenditure. Hence, a better understanding of the processes governing these cellular pathways will enable us to treat and manage these deadly respiratory diseases effectively. Moreover, it is important to comprehend the synergy and interplay of the cellular signaling pathways in respiratory diseases, which will enable us to explore and develop suitable strategies for targeted drug delivery. This review, in particular, focuses on the major respiratory diseases and further provides an in-depth discussion on the various cell signaling pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. Moreover, the review also analyses the defining concepts about advanced nano-drug delivery systems involving various nanocarriers and propose newer prospects to minimize the current challenges faced by researchers and formulation scientists.
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