Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

  1. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
  2. Assila Abdul Hamid, Seak, Yee Sin, Goh, Zhi Ping, Nurul Amiza Mat Adam, Mohd Syukri Hashim, Khalib Abdul Latiff
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):40-47.
    Accepted 07 August 2011.
    Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a major medical illness that drew the attention of the community. This research focused on the prevalence of five contributing factors to the progression of CKD, namely blood pressure control, glycaemic control, lipid control, smoking and alcohol intake, and explored significant association between these variables. This was a crosssectional study that examined the progression of CKD based on the worsening of CKD stages.
    Methods This study was conducted among CKD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended Nephorology Clinic, UKMMC from April to May 2011. The progression of CKD was observed for 3 consecutive visits with 3 months intervals between the visits. Information regarding demographic data and social history were obtained through face-to-face interview, followed by case note review of the blood results. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 19.0.
    Results A total of 201 respondents were investigated, which included 39.3% (n=79) female and 60.7% (n=122) male. The mean age for the respondents was 66.9 years old (±SD 9.00). Among the respondents, 71.5% had poor glycaemic control; 59.7% had poor blood pressure control; 65.2% had poor lipid control; 19.9% smoked and 3.5% consumed alcohol. There was poor correlation, there were statistically significant association between systolic blood pressure control with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p=0.001; r=-0.229). From this research, high systolic blood pressure was associated with low GFR, which indicated poor kidney function and resulted in progression of CKD.
    Conclusions This study has clearly demonstrated that the control of blood pressure was essential in delaying the progression of CKD.
  3. Fariza Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):637-642.
    Introduction In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy
    outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight
    is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived
    and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of
    childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by
    selected socio-demographic characteristics.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among
    urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley.
    Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight
    was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two
    measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data
    collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status
    and total household income.

    Results Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays,
    62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with
    more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived
    and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s
    Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived
    and actual weight (r=0.957;p
  4. Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu, Noor Hassim Ismail, Krishna Gopal Rampal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):543-548.
    Introduction Physical activity reduces risk of non-communicable diseases. Physical
    activity prevalence is low due to barriers to physical activity. This study was
    conducted to translate the Barrier to Physical Activity (BPA) questionnaire
    into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the translated version
    among nurses.

    Methods The Malay version of BPA was developed after translating the English
    version of BPA through back to back translation process. The Malay BPA
    was distributed among 306 volunteered nurses from 5 government hospitals
    in Selangor state. Factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and test – retest
    reliability was conducted to determine psychometric properties of BPA.

    Results Chronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 for perceived benefits items and 0.51
    for perceived barrier items (overall was 0.73). The ICC was 0.88 (95% CI:
    0.78-0.93) for test-retest testing after 7 days. Two factors components were
    yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.9 and 2.0
    respectively. Both the factors accounts for 31.4 % of the variance. Factor 1
    included 14 items and explained 19.9% of the variance. Factor 2 consisted of
    5 items and explained 11.5% of variance. CFA yielded two factor structures
    with acceptable goodness of fit indices [x2/df = 23.99; GFI = 0.82, SRMR =
    0.09; PNFI = 0.49 and RMSEA = 0.10 (90%CI = 0.09-0.11)].

    Conclusions The Malay version of BPA had demonstrated satisfactory level of validity
    and reliability to assess barriers to physical activity. Therefore, this
    questionnaire is valid in assessing barriers to physical activity among
    working population.
  5. Lai, B.F., Razitasham Safii, Lebia Nyulang, Dunggau, Christina, Mohd Asri Riffin, Khu, F.M., et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):237-241.
    Introduction The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TelePrimary Care (TPC) to monitor immunization programmed in a clinic. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination was selected as an example because its coverage has not been satisfactory when compared to that of other vaccinations, which generally exceed 90%.
    Methods Data for all children who were eligible for JE vaccination (age range from 9 months to 30 months) who attended Sarikei Health Clinic between 1 January 2007 till 31 June 2008, was extracted from the TPC database and analyzed for completeness and timeliness of JE vaccination.
    Results The analysis showed that although 1,243 children were eligible to receive their first dose of J vaccine at 9 months of age, only 560 (45%) received it. 15 (3%) received on time, and 545 (97%) received it late (age range from 10 months to 20 months). Out of the 560 who were scheduled to receive their second dose of JE vaccine four weeks after the first, 382 (88%) received it on time, and 55 (12%) received it late. Only 78 (18%) out of 429 children aged between 18 months to 24 months received their booster dose; 52 (67%) received it on time and 26 (33%) received it late.TPC not only enables health staff to monitor immunization coverage and timeliness accurately, but it also helps them to identify defaulters quickly so that these children can be traced and immunized. Doing these tasks manually is time-consuming and tedious, leading to delays in tracing defaulters.
    Conclusions TPC provides an effective system for staff to easily access real time child health data to monitor and audit their immunization programme and take remedial action where necessary.
  6. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
  7. Fadil Lokman ML
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):232-235.
    It all started with a SSM research. SSM, which is an abbreviation for ‘Special Study Module’ is a unique module in the curriculum of the Medical Faculty National University of Malaysia (UKM), where each students were required to do a medical research in the field that we have interest in. Being interested in the field of public health, 3 of my friends and I did a research on the prevalence of tuberculosis in Cheras using the graphic informational system (GIS) to map each case of tuberculosis on the map of Kuala Lumpur. Our supervisor was Associate Professor Dr Shamsul Azhar, who is himself an expert on the field of GIS study and has been doing his PhD research using the same system in Niigata University, Japan for almost 4 years. During one of our SSM meetings, he mentions that the post-graduate students in UKM has done several visits to Niigata University and brought up the idea that maybe the undergraduate students like us could do the same. (Copied from article).
  8. Norfazilah Ahmad, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Nurmawati Ahmad, Zaleha Md Nor, Juhaida Mohd Noor, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):924-932.
    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and
    middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis.
    Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective
    targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
    Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database,
    this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact
    screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of
    appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24
    articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
    Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is
    better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include
    close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1
    year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited
    setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified
    case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol.
    Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less
    than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV
    and close contact with MDR-TB.
    Conclusions Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate
    complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management
    protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health
    capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders
  9. Haslina Hassan, Rosnah Sutan, Nursazila Asikin Mohd Azmi, Shuhaila Ahmad, Rohana Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):241-248.
    The aim of the Fourth Millennium Developmental Goal is to reduce mortality among children less than 5 years by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Efforts are more focus on improving children's health. The aim of this study was to describe the trend of stillbirth and neonatal deaths in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from 2004 to 2010. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital data on perinatal mortality and monthly census delivery statistics. There were 45,277 deliveries with 526 stillbirths and neonatal deaths. More than half of the stillborn cases were classified as normally formed macerated stillbirth and prematurity was common in neonatal deaths. The trend of SB and NND was found fluctuating in this study. However, by using proportionate test comparing rate, there was a transient significant decline of stillbirth but not neonatal deaths rates between 2004 and 2006. On the other hand, the neonatal deaths rate showed significant increment from 2006 to 2008. When both mortality rates were compared using proportionate test, from the start of the study, year 2004 with end of the study, year 2010, there was no significant decline noted. Trends of stillbirth and neonatal death rates in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre within 7 years study period did not show the expected outcome as in Millennium Developmental Goal of two thirds reduction.
  10. Al-Kubaisy, Waqar A., Niazi, Amjad D.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):72-78.
    Introduction Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) recently was identified as a major cause of post transfusion hepatitis world wide. To evaluate the role of blood transfusion on the prevalence of HCV infection, by testing antibody and RNA as well as the genotypes of HCV .Also to detect if Blood transfusion acts as unconfounding risk factor for HCV infection.
    Methods Sera from 3491 pregnant women were investigated for the presence of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) by using third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) as screening test, followed by immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-III). In addition 94 sera of studied women were subjected to molecular analysis (at laboratories of Sorin BioMedica - Italy) for the detection of viral RNA and genotypes of HCV. Using RT-PCR & DNA Enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method.
    Results Our study revealed, that seroprevalence rate of HCV specific Ab & RNA were significantly higher (16.32 %, 80% respectively) among women with a history of blood transfusion, compared to those (2.53%, 56.5%) with no such history P=0.0001, P=0.01. And there is a significant direct linear correlation between number of blood transfused and the seropositive rate of anti-HCV (r=0.7, p=0.046). Based on multivariate analysis, interestingly, this study confirmed that, blood transfusion significantly acting as unconfounding risk factor for acquiring HCV infection (Adjusted OR=1.938,95% C.I=1.646-2.28). And the risk of exposure is increases with increased number of blood transfused. Although, we found no significant association between, HCV genotypic distribution and history of blood transfusion. However, high proportion of women with a history of blood transfusion were harboring HCV genotype -4 or 1b, 50%,40%, resepctively.
    Conclusions Our study shows, evidence that, blood transfusion acts as unconfounding risk factor for acquiring and in a mode of transmission of HCV infection. Therefore strict screening of blood donor for HCV-Abs and / or RNA is highly recommended.
  11. Akoi, Cliffton, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Syafiq Abdullah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):236-240.
    Medication adherence is very important for the effective treatment or control of various health problems, including chronic disease like diabetes mellitus (DM). However, medication non-adherence among diabetic patients on follow-up treatment is still a global health problem. This study aimed to identify factors associated with medication adherence and to determine methods on how it could be improved. A cross-sectional study was conducted on medication adherence among Malays, Iban and Melanau ethnic groups in Kota Samarahan and Sarikei, Sarawak using the Health Belief Model framework. Interviews with questionnaires, which were tested for its validity and reliability using the Cronbach’s Alpha, were conducted to collect data on the respondent’s socio-demographic and economic characteristics, and health beliefs of 442 respondents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for frequency distribution, measures of central tendencies, significance testing and logistic regression. The medication adherence rates were low in terms of all the treatment indicators such as amount of medication (31.7%), frequency (38.9%), duration (26%), and follow-up treatment (24.2%). The respondent’s socio-economic and economic characteristics have statistically significant association with medication adherence. The respondents adhered towards medication because they believed in its benefits. They also took their medication because they believed in the severity of DM and their susceptibility to its serious complications. The cues to action (medication taking) such as worrying about their socio-economic well-being, effectiveness of medication, and health campaign on diabetic control have influenced medication adherence. However, forgetfulness, distance of clinic, and costs of transport have caused medication non-adherence. The respondent's health beliefs in the benefits of taking medication, perceived severity and susceptibility to DM and its serious complications have contributed towards medication adherence. Their concerns about the socio-economic well-being, effectiveness of medication, and health campaign on diabetic control were positive cues to medication taking behavior. Therefore, modifying the respondent's related health beliefs and reinforcing the positive cues to actions are the relevant intervention strategies that could be used in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients.
  12. Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Norehan Abdullah, Shri Dewi Applanaidu
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):741-749.
    Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
    rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
    evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
    identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
    its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
    Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
    – diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
    multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
    descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
    urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
    analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
    visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.

    Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
    gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
    probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
    controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.

    Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
    for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age
  13. Satrinawati, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):472-479.
    Introduction The health of newborns is inextricably linked to that of their mothers. Some
    maternal factors can influence neonatal survival, particularly for low birth
    weight babies who are more vulnerable to diseases than normal weight
    babies. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of maternal factors on
    neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province,

    Methods Study design was unmatched case control. Data collected from 2010 to 2012
    in 8 districts in Aceh province, Indonesia. Total sample was 500, divided into
    250 LBW who died in neonatal period (case group) and 250 who did not die
    in neonatal period (control group). There were 6 maternal variables analysed.

    Results Three of six variables analysed were not associated with neonatal mortality
    among LBW (P > 0.05); these were: maternal death, parity and education
    level. The age of the mother had a significant association with neonatal
    mortality among LBW (P < 0.05), but was not a determinant factor. The
    maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW(P < 0.05); maternal illness (Adj OR= 2.6; 95 % CI:
    1.68 - 4.0) and birth interval (Adj OR= 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.20 - 2.91).

    Conclusions Maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW. Appropriate care throughout stages of pregnancy and
    increasing women’s knowledge on high risk pregnancy are the key factors to
    the decrease of the neonatal mortality related to the maternal factors.
  14. Norfazillah Ab Manan, Rozita Hod, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Mazrura Sahani, Rosnah Ismail, Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):707-712.
    Air pollution has been widely known to have an influence on health of the general population.
    Air pollution can result from natural causes, human activities and transboundary air pollution.
    Weather and climate play crucial role in determining the pattern of air quality. In recent years,
    air pollution and recurrent episodes of haze has become a major concern in Malaysia.
    Surveillance data on concentrations of main air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, (CO2),
    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10)
    were found to be higher during the haze days and this may have an impact on health of the
    community as reflected by an increase in hospital admissions particularly the respiratory and
    cardiovascular diseases.
  15. Zafar Ahmed, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Aisha Abdussalam, Mahmud Hanesh, Suriati Sukeri, Joseph, Leonard
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):65-74.
    OBJECTIVE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and general health symptoms pre and after hospital-based respiratory physiotherapy program among COPD patients. METHODS. Pre and post intervention study was conducted between January and July 2010. A total of 54 subjects aged between 30 to 40 years old were recruited for this study using universal sampling method from Alzawia Teaching Hospital, Libya. Data collected were socio-demographic data, QOL (before and after the intervention) using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, ADL using the Barthel Index and the General Health Symptoms.
    RESULTS.. The mean SF-36 score for QOL is 30.13 (SD = 8.06) and 63.46 (SD = 13.53) before and after the physiotherapy respectively (with the p <0.0001). Patients’ Activity of Daily Living mean scores are 70.18, (SD = 16.50) and mean = 88.89 (SD = 13.28) before and after program (p< 0.0001). The general medical condition mean score after respiratory physiotherapy is 3.72 as compared to 4.96 before the respiratory physiotherapy (p< 0.0001). Pulmonary Function Test shows improvement in actual/predicted FEV1 ratio in all 54 cases with mean improvement from 55.85 before to 81.67 after the pulmonary physiotherapy (with the p <0.0001).
    CONCLUSION. Hospital based respiratory physiotherapy program had significantly improved QOL, pulmonary function and activities of daily living among the subjects.
  16. Rohayu Sarani, Hizal Hanis Hashim, Wan Fairos Wan Yaakob, Norlen Mohamed, Radin Umar Radin Sohadi
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):267-275.
    The increase in car usage due to economic prosperity has led to increase in occupant injuries. One way to reduce the injuries encountered by road accident victims is by implementing the rear seatbelt (RSB) law. Rear seatbelt wearing has been proven to save lives. In Malaysia, the implementation of the restraint system for front occupant has started in the 70's. However, the rear seatbelt enforcement law only came in 2009, after six months of an advocacy program. Prior to the introduction of the rear seatbelt law, rear seatbelt wearing rate was rather low, started to increase gradually during the advocacy period and jumped to the highest level after two month of the enforcement. This paper attempts to assess the effectiveness of the rear seatbelt intervention in reducing injuries among passenger car occupants in Malaysia using the generalized linear model (GLM). In GLM procedure, the dependent variable is the number of people from passenger vehicles that sustained severe and slight injuries, for the study period. The study period selected covers six months before implementation, six months during advocacy program, and six months after the law is implemented. The independent variables considered are enforcement and balik kampung activities (both are dummy variables) and time effect. Our results suggest that RSB intervention (p-value= 0.0001) had significantly reduced the number of people sustained serious and slight injuries by about 20%. The implementation of change in the RSB law has benefited not only in reducing the number of injuries but also result to great impact to the health outcomes.
  17. Diana Maha, Zaleha Md Isa, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Mohd Ihsani Mahmood, Fatimah Othman, Rashidah Ambak
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):860-870.
    Introduction The most effective and affordable public health strategy to prevent
    hypertension, stroke and renal disease is by reducing daily salt consumption.
    Therefore, this study aims to determine the association of knowledge, attitude
    and practice on salt diet intake and to identify foods contributing to high
    sodium intake.
    Methods Secondary data analysis was performed on MySalt 2016 data. It was
    conducted from November 2015 until January 2016 which involving Ministry
    of Health Staff worked at 16 study sites in Malaysia. Salt intake was
    measured using 24 hours urinary sodium excretion. Food frequency
    questionnaire was used to determine the sodium sources. Knowledge, attitude
    and practice of salt intake were assessed using a validated questionnaire
    adapted from WHO. Demographic data and anthropometric measures also
    were collected. Sodium levels of more than 2400mg/day was categorised as
    high sodium intake. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 21.
    Results The mean sodium intake estimated by 24 hours urinary sodium excretion was
    2853.23 + 1275.8 mg/day. Food groups namely rice/noodles (33.8%),
    sauces/seasoning (20.6%), meat and poultry (12.6%) and fish/seafoods
    (9.3%) were the major contributors of dietary sodium. In multiple logistic
    regression analysis, being a male (aOR=2.83, 95% CI 2.02 – 3.96) and obese
    (aOR=6.78, 95% CI 1.98 – 23.18) were significantly associated with high
    urinary sodium excretions. In addition, those who were unsure that high salt
    intake can cause hypertension (aOR=1.24, 95% CI 0.65 – 2.36), those who
    think that they consumed too much salt (aOR=2.10, 95% CI 1.13 – 3.87) and
    those who only use salt rather than other spices for cooking (aOR=2.07, 95%
    CI 1.29 – 3.30) were significantly associated with high urinary sodium
    Conclusions This study showed that the main sources of sodium among Malay healthcare
    staff is cooked food. Poor knowledge and practice towards reducing salt
    consumption among them contributes to the high sodium consumption. The
    practice of healthy eating among them together with continuous awareness
    campaign is essential in order to educate them to minimize sodium
    consumption and to practice healthy eating.
  18. Rozita Hod, Hidayatulfathi Othman, Nurul Azimah Jemain, Mazrura Sahani, Kamarulismail Udin, Zainudin Mohd Ali, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):347-352.
    Dengue is a disease propagated by vectors namely Aedes spp. mosquitoes. One of the effective approaches to control dengue is through integrated vector management and intervention programs. COMBI or Communication for Behavioral Impact is a strategic approach to control the Aedes population as well as dengue cases. This study was conducted at Taman Desa Kolej, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, an suburban residential area to determine the effectiveness of COMBI, by using questionnaire and entomological survey as well as implementation of an intervention program. We carried out activities such as the establishment of COMBI promoter team, clean up events, talk shows with the residential community and distributed pamphlets containing information about dengue. Results indicated significant difference (p
  19. Hayward G
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):100-102.
    The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2006) defines teenage pregnancy as a 'teenaged or underaged girl (usually within the ages of 13-19) becoming pregnant.' The term usually refers to women who become pregnant, who have not reached legal adulthood; legal adulthood varies in different countries. The term teenage pregnancy is widely used however, to mean unmarried adolescent girls who become pregnant. Pregnant teenagers face many additional obstetric, medical & social issues compared to women who give birth in their 20s and 30s. Most at risk are mothers under fifteen and those living in developing countries. Complications during pregnancy and delivery are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15 to 19 in developing countries; they are twice as likely to die in childbirth as women in their twenties, with adolescents accounting for 13% maternal deaths worldwide. There is evidence to show (UNICEF Malaysia, 2008) that teenage pregnancy is associated with lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty and that the situation is often repeated with children of teenage parents. In addition, teenage pregnancy is often outside of marriage and therefore carries a social stigma in many cultures and community.
  20. Norfazilah Ahmad, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Incham Manggat, Mohd Rizam Abdul Rahman, Hazlina Mohd Miskam, Sazman Wahab, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):913-923.
    Introduction The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and a disease with high morbidity
    and mortality.Young mothers are sub-populations that are at high risk for HIV
    through sexual activity. In addition, information on the level of knowledge,
    attitude and practice among young mothers in Malaysia regarding HIV/AIDS
    prevention is still limited.Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine
    the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of
    HIV/AIDS among young mothers and the factors that influence them.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in a city center
    among 147 young mothers aged 18-30 years old at the Post Natal and
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward (O & G). Data collection was conducted in
    April-November 2014 and the respondents' selection was based on simple
    random sampling. A questionnaire containing validated instruments was used
    in this study. Approval for conducting research has been obtained from the
    UKM Research Ethics Committee before the data collection procedure is
    Results Majority of the young mothers have good knowledge (78.8%) and practice
    (71.2%) towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While more than half of them (56.7%)
    have positive attitude towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Living in the
    urban area and being married are significantly associated with having good
    knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While,
    mothers who are 5 years older compared to the younger ones and being
    married are significantly associated with having good practice towards
    HIV/AIDS prevention.
    Conclusions The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the associated
    factors could be the baseline to formulate health intervention to prevent
    HIV/AIDS among this vulnerable group.
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