RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.
CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The mean values of colour features in RGB R m , G m , B m , normalised RGB R nm , G nm , B nm HSV H m , S m , V m , and L*a*b* L m , a m , b m were the best estimator for predicting TSS with R2 ≥ 0.90. All colour channels also showed satisfactory accuracies of R2 ≥ 0.80 in predicting the bioyield force, apparent modulus and mean force. The highest average classification accuracy was obtained using LDA with an average accuracy of more than 82%. The study showed that LDA, LSVM, QDA and QSVM obtained the correct classification of up to 100% for R5, whereas R1, R2, R3 and R4 gave classification accuracies in the range between 83.75-91.85%, 85.6-90.25%, 85.75-90.85% and 77.35-87.15% respectively. This indicates R5 colour information was obviously different from R1-R4. The mean values of the HSV channel indicated the best performance to predict the ripening stages of papaya, compared to RGB, normalised RGB and L*a*b*channels, with an average classification accuracy of more than 80%.
CONCLUSION: The study has shown the versatility of a machine vision system in predicting the quality changes in papaya. The results showed that the machine vision system can be used to predict the ripening stages as well as classifying the fruits into different ripening stages of papayas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P
RESULTS: Here, we investigated the microbial dynamics by next-generation sequencing, and outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling in the process of serofluid dish fermentation using the method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lactobacillus was the leading genus of bacteria, while Pichia and Issatchenkia were the dominant fungi. They all accumulated during fermentation. In total, 218 differential metabolites were identified, of which organic acids, amino acids, sugar and sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and esters comprised the majority. The constructed metabolic network showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, and flavonoid metabolism were regulated by the fermentation. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the leading fungi, Pichia and Issatchenkia, were linked to organic acids, amino acid and sugar metabolism, flavonoids, and several other flavor and functional components. Antibacterial tests indicated the antibacterial effect of serofluid soup against Salmonella and Staphylococcus.
CONCLUSION: This work provides new insights into the complex microbial and metabolic networks during serofluid dish fermentation, and a theoretical basis for the optimization of its industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.
CONCLUSION: Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index < 0.2 and the majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains.
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: As pod developed, cacao exhibited a rise with the peak of flavonol occurring at months 4 and 5 after pod maturity was initiated while nitrogen balance showed a decreasing trend during maturity. Cacao pods contained high chlorophyll as they developed but chlorophyll content declined significantly on pods that ripened at month 5.
CONCLUSION: Cacao pods harvested at months 4 and 5 can be considered as commercially-ready as the beans have developed good quality and comply with the Malaysian standard on cacao bean specification. Thus, cacao pods can be harvested earlier when they reach maturity at month 4 after pod emergence to avoid germinated beans and over fermentation in ripe pods harvested at month 5. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: As pods developed, flavonol accumulated while nitrogen content degraded. Mature pods produced beans with a higher flavonol, catechin, and total phenolic content (TPC). As fermentation progressed, the beans' fat, TPC, antioxidant activity, and catechin content increased, regardless of pod maturity at harvest. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels were highest in 5 day fermented beans. The 3 day fermented beans contained significantly higher epicatechin, with lower FFA content. Chocolate made from mature beans with 3 day fermentation was more pleasant as it scored the highest in flavor intensity and complexity and the lowest in acidity and astringency.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that cacao pods harvested at the mature stage with further fermentation for 3 days under controlled temperatures produce specialty beans with potential health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.
CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg(-1) ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres.
CONCLUSION: Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: PPF was subjected to alkali and bleach treatment prior to hydrolysis, which successfully removed 54% and 75% of non-cellulosic components (hemicellulose and lignin, respectively). Hydrolysis conditions of 5 h, 15:1 (w/w) resin-to-pulp ratio and 50 °C produced CNC particles of 50-100 nm in length. CNC had a crystallinity index of 42% and appeared rod-like morphologically. CNC-stabilised emulsion had better stability when used in combination with soy lecithin (SL), a well-established, commonly used food stabiliser. Emulsion stabilised by the binary mixture of CNC and SL had droplet size, morphology and physical stability comparable to those of emulsion stabilised using SL.
CONCLUSIONS: CNC was successfully isolated from PPF through a cation exchange resin. This offers an alternative usage for the underutilised PPF to be converted into value-added products. Isolated CNC was also found to have promising potential in the stabilisation of Pickering emulsions. These results provide useful information indicating CNC as a natural and sustainable stabiliser for food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P 0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.
CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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