Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Zzaman W, Bhat R, Yang TA, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Oct;97(13):4429-4437.
    PMID: 28251656 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
    BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated.

    RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.

    CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Zulkifli N, Hashim N, Harith HH, Mohamad Shukery MF, Onwude DI
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov 20.
    PMID: 34802158 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11669
    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the quality properties of papaya becomes essential due to the acceleration of the fruit shelf-life senescence and the deterioration factor of the expected postharvest operations. In this study, the colour features in RGB, normalised RGB, HSV and L*a*b* channels were extracted and correlated with mechanical properties, moisture content (MC), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH for the prediction of quality properties at five ripening stages of papaya (R1- R5).

    RESULTS: The mean values of colour features in RGB R m , G m , B m , normalised RGB R nm , G nm , B nm HSV H m , S m , V m , and L*a*b* L m , a m , b m were the best estimator for predicting TSS with R2 ≥ 0.90. All colour channels also showed satisfactory accuracies of R2 ≥ 0.80 in predicting the bioyield force, apparent modulus and mean force. The highest average classification accuracy was obtained using LDA with an average accuracy of more than 82%. The study showed that LDA, LSVM, QDA and QSVM obtained the correct classification of up to 100% for R5, whereas R1, R2, R3 and R4 gave classification accuracies in the range between 83.75-91.85%, 85.6-90.25%, 85.75-90.85% and 77.35-87.15% respectively. This indicates R5 colour information was obviously different from R1-R4. The mean values of the HSV channel indicated the best performance to predict the ripening stages of papaya, compared to RGB, normalised RGB and L*a*b*channels, with an average classification accuracy of more than 80%.

    CONCLUSION: The study has shown the versatility of a machine vision system in predicting the quality changes in papaya. The results showed that the machine vision system can be used to predict the ripening stages as well as classifying the fruits into different ripening stages of papayas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Zamzuri NA, Abd-Aziz S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Feb;93(3):429-38.
    PMID: 23208984 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5962
    This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors.
  4. Yusof NA, Isha A, Ismail IS, Khatib A, Shaari K, Abas F, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Sep;95(12):2533-43.
    PMID: 25371390 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6987
    The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
  5. Yeo SK, Liong MT
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Jan;93(2):396-409.
    PMID: 22806322 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5775
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation (2.5-7.5 kV cm⁻¹ for 3.0-4.0 ms) on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, membrane properties and bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk.
  6. Yeo SK, Liong MT
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Jan 30;90(2):267-75.
    PMID: 20355041 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3808
    Soy products have attracted much attention lately as carriers for probiotics. This study was aimed at enhancing the growth of probiotics in soymilk via supplementation with prebiotics.
  7. Yap YH, Tan N, Fung S, Aziz AA, Tan C, Ng S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Sep;93(12):2945-52.
    PMID: 23460242 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6121
    Lignosus rhinocerus (tiger milk mushroom) is an important medicinal mushroom used in Southeast Asia and China, and its sclerotium can be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. The nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of wild type and a cultivated strain of L. rhinocerus sclerotia were investigated.
  8. Yap JY, Hii CL, Ong SP, Lim KH, Abas F, Pin KY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 May;100(7):2932-2937.
    PMID: 32031257 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10320
    BACKGROUND: Papaya is widely grown in Malaysia and normally only the fruits are consumed. Other parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties and have been used to treat various diseases. Papaya leaves also contain flavonoids, alkaloids phenolic compounds and cynogenetic compounds, and are also reported to be able to treat dengue fever.

    RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P 

  9. Wei J, Ren W, Wang L, Liu M, Tian X, Ding G, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Dec;100(15):5627-5636.
    PMID: 32712996 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10690
    BACKGROUND: Serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food, possesses unique flavors and health beneficial effects. These properties are likely due to the sophisticated metabolic networks during fermentation, which are mainly driven by microbiota. However, the exact roles of metabolic pathways and the microbial community during this process remain equivocal.

    RESULTS: Here, we investigated the microbial dynamics by next-generation sequencing, and outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling in the process of serofluid dish fermentation using the method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lactobacillus was the leading genus of bacteria, while Pichia and Issatchenkia were the dominant fungi. They all accumulated during fermentation. In total, 218 differential metabolites were identified, of which organic acids, amino acids, sugar and sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and esters comprised the majority. The constructed metabolic network showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, and flavonoid metabolism were regulated by the fermentation. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the leading fungi, Pichia and Issatchenkia, were linked to organic acids, amino acid and sugar metabolism, flavonoids, and several other flavor and functional components. Antibacterial tests indicated the antibacterial effect of serofluid soup against Salmonella and Staphylococcus.

    CONCLUSION: This work provides new insights into the complex microbial and metabolic networks during serofluid dish fermentation, and a theoretical basis for the optimization of its industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Martini MY, Oladosu Y, Kashiani P
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(4):1164-1171.
    PMID: 27290898 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
    BACKGROUND: Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

    RESULTS: Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.

    CONCLUSION: Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Uddin MS, Sarker MZ, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Easmin MS, Bt Shamsudin SH, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 May;95(7):1385-94.
    PMID: 25048690 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6833
    Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2.
  12. Thong KL, Tan LK, Ooi PT
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):87-95.
    PMID: 28542807 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8442
    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index < 0.2 and the majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains.

    CONCLUSION: The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Tee YK, Balasundram SK, Ding P, M Hanif AH, Bariah K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Mar 15;99(4):1700-1708.
    PMID: 30206959 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9359
    BACKGROUND: A series of fluorescence indices (anthocyanin, flavonol, chlorophyll and nitrogen balance) were deployed to detect the pigments and colourless flavonoids in cacao pods of three commercial cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genotypes (QH1003, KKM22 and MCBC1) using a fast and non-destructive multiparametric fluorescence sensor. The aim was to determine optimum harvest periods (either 4 or 5 months after pod emergence) of commercial cacao based on fluorescence indices of cacao development and bean quality.

    RESULTS: As pod developed, cacao exhibited a rise with the peak of flavonol occurring at months 4 and 5 after pod maturity was initiated while nitrogen balance showed a decreasing trend during maturity. Cacao pods contained high chlorophyll as they developed but chlorophyll content declined significantly on pods that ripened at month 5.

    CONCLUSION: Cacao pods harvested at months 4 and 5 can be considered as commercially-ready as the beans have developed good quality and comply with the Malaysian standard on cacao bean specification. Thus, cacao pods can be harvested earlier when they reach maturity at month 4 after pod emergence to avoid germinated beans and over fermentation in ripe pods harvested at month 5. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Tee YK, Bariah K, Hisyam Zainudin B, Samuel Yap KC, Ong NG
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Mar 15;102(4):1576-1585.
    PMID: 34405409 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11494
    BACKGROUND: Cacao beans are rich sources of polyphenols with an abundance of flavonoids and methylxanthines that have positive influences on human health. The main factors affecting the formation of flavor as well as the chemical and bioactive composition of cacao beans are cacao pod maturity and post-harvest fermentation. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of pod harvest maturity (mature and ripe) and post-fermentation period (1, 3, and 5 days in a controlled temperature environment) measured by pre-harvest maturity indices, post-harvest quality tests, chemical measurements, and organoleptic evaluation.

    RESULTS: As pods developed, flavonol accumulated while nitrogen content degraded. Mature pods produced beans with a higher flavonol, catechin, and total phenolic content (TPC). As fermentation progressed, the beans' fat, TPC, antioxidant activity, and catechin content increased, regardless of pod maturity at harvest. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels were highest in 5 day fermented beans. The 3 day fermented beans contained significantly higher epicatechin, with lower FFA content. Chocolate made from mature beans with 3 day fermentation was more pleasant as it scored the highest in flavor intensity and complexity and the lowest in acidity and astringency.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that cacao pods harvested at the mature stage with further fermentation for 3 days under controlled temperatures produce specialty beans with potential health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Tang EL, Rajarajeswaran J, Fung S, Kanthimathi MS
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Oct;95(13):2763-71.
    PMID: 25582089 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7078
    Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3-L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF-7 cells.
  16. Tan PY, Tan TB, Chang HW, Mwangi WW, Tey BT, Chan ES, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov;101(14):5963-5971.
    PMID: 33840091 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11249
    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past decade, Pickering emulsion has been increasingly utilized for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds due to its high stability and biocompatibility. In the present work, palm tocotrienols were initially encapsulated in a calcium carbonate Pickering emulsion, which was then subjected to alginate gelation and subsequent chitosan coating. The effects of wall material (alginate and chitosan) concentrations, gelation pH and time, and chitosan coating time on the encapsulation efficiency of palm tocotrienols were explored.

    RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.

    CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Tan JC, Chuah CH, Cheng SF
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Apr;97(6):1784-1789.
    PMID: 27470073 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7975
    BACKGROUND: Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater.

    RESULTS: A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg(-1) ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres.

    CONCLUSION: Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Soo YT, Ng SW, Tang TK, Ab Karim NA, Phuah ET, Lee YY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Aug 15;101(10):4161-4172.
    PMID: 33428211 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11054
    BACKGROUND: Palm pressed fibre (PPF) is a cellulose-rich biomass residue produced during palm oil extraction. Its high cellulose content allows the isolation of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC has attracted scientific interest due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and low cost. The present study isolated CNC from PPF using a cation exchange resin, which is an environmentally friendly and less harsh hydrolysis method than conventional mineral acid hydrolysis. Isolated CNC was used to stabilise an oil-in-water emulsion and the emulsion stability was evaluated in terms of droplet size, morphology and physical stability.

    RESULTS: PPF was subjected to alkali and bleach treatment prior to hydrolysis, which successfully removed 54% and 75% of non-cellulosic components (hemicellulose and lignin, respectively). Hydrolysis conditions of 5 h, 15:1 (w/w) resin-to-pulp ratio and 50 °C produced CNC particles of 50-100 nm in length. CNC had a crystallinity index of 42% and appeared rod-like morphologically. CNC-stabilised emulsion had better stability when used in combination with soy lecithin (SL), a well-established, commonly used food stabiliser. Emulsion stabilised by the binary mixture of CNC and SL had droplet size, morphology and physical stability comparable to those of emulsion stabilised using SL.

    CONCLUSIONS: CNC was successfully isolated from PPF through a cation exchange resin. This offers an alternative usage for the underutilised PPF to be converted into value-added products. Isolated CNC was also found to have promising potential in the stabilisation of Pickering emulsions. These results provide useful information indicating CNC as a natural and sustainable stabiliser for food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Soo YN, Tan CP, Tan PY, Khalid N, Tan TB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Apr;101(6):2455-2462.
    PMID: 33034060 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10871
    BACKGROUND: The popularity of coffee, the second most consumed beverage in the world, contributes to the high demand for liquid non-dairy creamer (LNDC). In this study, palm olein emulsions (as LNDCs) were investigated as alternatives to the more common soybean oil-based LNDCs. LNDCs were prepared via different homogenization pressures (100-300 bar) using different types of oil (palm olein and soybean oil) and concentrations of DATEM emulsifier (5-20 g kg-1 ).

    RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P  0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.

    CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sim EY, Wu TY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Oct;90(13):2153-62.
    PMID: 20718020 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4127
    There is an urgent need globally to find alternative sustainable steps to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) originated from mismanagement of urban wastes with increasing disposal cost. Furthermore, a conglomeration of ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle is contributing towards the generation of more MSW. In this context, vermicomposting offers excellent potential to promote safe, hygienic and sustainable management of biodegradable MSW. It has been demonstrated that, through vermicomposting, MSW such as city garbage, household and kitchen wastes, vegetable wastes, paper wastes, human faeces and others could be sustainably transformed into organic fertiliser or vermicompost that provides great benefits to agricultural soil and plants. Generally, earthworms are sensitive to their environment and require temperature, moisture content, pH and sometimes ventilation at proper levels for the optimum vermicomposting process. Apart from setting the optimum operational conditions for the vermicomposting process, other approaches such as pre-composting, inoculating micro-organisms into MSW and redesigning the conventional vermireactor could be introduced to further enhance the vermicomposting of MSW. Thus the present mini-review discusses the potential of introducing vermicomposting in MSW management, the benefits of vermicomposted MSW to plants, suggestions on how to enhance the vermicomposting of MSW as well as risk management in the vermicomposting of MSW.
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