RESULTS: Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage.
CONCLUSION: Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: In the present study, bioinformatics and cell biology were used to investigate the functions and signal pathway enrichments of differentially expressed genes. The bioinformatics analysis of three original microarray datasets (GSE73661, GSE75214 and GSE126124) in the NCBI-Gene Expression Omnibus database showed 17 down-regulated genes (logFC 0) existed in the enteritis tissue. Meanwhile, pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analysis suggested that IBD is relevant to cytotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Caco-2 cells were treated with the main oxidation products of deep-frying oil-total polar compounds (TPC) and its components (polymerized triglyceride, oxidized triglycerides and triglyceride degradation products) isolated from deep-frying oil. The flow cytometry experiment revealed that TPC and its components could induce apoptosis, especially for oxidized triglyceride. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that TPC and its component could induce Caco-2 cell apoptosis through AQP8/CXCL1/TNIP3/IL-1.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides fundamental knowledge for understanding the effects of deep-frying oils on the cytotoxic and inflammatory of Caco-2 cells, in addition to clarifying the molecular function mechanism of deep-frying oil in IBD. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Heat and UHP treatments induced the unfolding of DLp to varied degrees, as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption, circular dichroism spectra and surface hydrophobicity measurements. Two types of heating-denatured states with varied unfolding degrees were obtained, while UHP at both levels of 100/500 MPa caused partial unfolding of DLp and the presence of a molten-globule state, which significantly enhanced the binding affinity between DLp and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal. In particular, significantly modified secondary structures of DLp were observed in heating-denatured samples. Excessive denaturing and unfolding degrees resulted in no significant changes in the absorption behavior of the volatile ligand, as characterized by observations of fluorescence quenching and analysis of headspace concentrations.
CONCLUSION: Defining process-induced conformational transition behavior of matrix proteins could be a promising strategy to regulate food flavor attributes and, particularly, to produce DLp coextracted with limited off-flavor components by modifying their interaction during extraction processes. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: This study was done to assess the hereditary assorted variety of selected genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on their morphophysiological and yield traits in two planting seasons. The biochemical properties, capsaicinoid content (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), total phenolics content and antioxidant action determination of unripe and ripe chili pepper fruits were carried out in dry fruits. AVPP9813 and Kulai 907 were observed to have high fruit yields, with 541.39 and 502.64 g per plant, respectively. The most increased genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were shown by the fruit number per plant (49.71% and 66.04%, respectively). High heritability was observed in yield characters viz-à-viz fruit weight, length and girth and indicated high genetic advance. Eight groups were obtained from the cluster analysis. For the biochemical analysis, the capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content were high in Chili Bangi 3 at unripe and ripe fruit stages, while for antioxidant activity SDP203 was the highest in ripe dry fruit.
CONCLUSION: Higher GCV and PCV, combined with moderate to high heritability and high hereditary progress, were seen in number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit weight per fruit. These findings are beneficial for chili pepper breeders to select desirable quantitative characters in C. annuum in their breeding program. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P 0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.
CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: A clear separation was only observed between non-organic G and organic Z, which were then selected for further investigation in the fermentation of soybeans (GF and ZF). All four groups (G, Z, GF, ZF) were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy along with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this way a total of 41 and 47 metabolites were identified respectively, with 12 in common. A clear variation (|log1.5 FC| > 2 and P
RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P
RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.
CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: The FI in China increased rapidly from about 5 kg ha-1 in 1961 to the highest value of 282 kg ha-1 in 2014, then decreased to about 231 kg ha-1 in 2018. Although the fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) showed a slight downward trend, slight upward trend was observed for the fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE). FIs in India, Iran and Turkey continuously rose from5 kg ha-1 in 1961to 116, 49(148 in 2006),120kg ha-1 in 2018, respectively, while FAEs showed a significant fluctuation around horizontal direction or downward trends and their FIEs showed a slight fluctuation downward. FIs of Britain, Germany and France except USA, increased rapidly from about 200-400 kg ha-1 in 1960s to peaks of 430-530 kg ha-1 in 1980s, then dropped to 150-340 kg ha-1 around 2010, and then up to current level of 200-350 kg ha-1 , while FAEs and FIEs increased rapidly.
CONCLUSION: France and Germany were found to have moderate chemical fertilizer input and the highest FIE. Thus, their experiences of ecological agricultures in both countries could provide good examples for the developing countries to follow. In short, models of FAE and FIE were easier way to reflect the fertilizer efficiencies in developed and developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
RESULTS: ET 2.0 was found to be the best enzyme for hydrolysis. Under the optimum condition, the FFA content achievable was 790 g kg-1 after 24 h of reaction with 1:1 water-to-oil mass ratio at 50 °C and stirring speed of 9 × g. Furthermore, with the addition of 2 g kg-1 ascorbic acid, it was found that 98% of carotenoids and 96% of tocols could be retained after hydrolysis.
CONCLUSION: This work shows that enzymatic hydrolysis, which is inherently safer, cleaner and sustainable is feasible to replace the conventional methanolysis for the production of palm phytonutrients. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULT: Protein hydrolysis by protease followed by extraction of non-starch lipids with WSB increased yield to 1.9 ± 0.3% from 1.0 ± 0.1% with no protease treatment. The lipid profile showed a significant increase in phospholipid compounds extracted with protease hydrolysis (5.9 ± 0.8 nmol·g-1 ) versus without enzymatic treatment (2.4 ± 1.3 nmol g-1 ).
CONCLUSION: Improved lipid extraction yield and phospholipid compounds following protease-assisted extraction method provided additional insight towards the understanding of protein-lipid interaction in wheat flour. The new protease-assisted extraction method may be applied to analyzing non-starch lipids in other types of wheat flours and other cereal flours. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.
CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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