Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Madani B, Mirshekari A, Yahia E
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Jul;96(9):2963-8.
    PMID: 26374618 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7462
    BACKGROUND: There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects.

    RESULTS: Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage.

    CONCLUSION: Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Li X, Nian BB, Tan CP, Liu YF, Xu YJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov 17.
    PMID: 34786719 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11659
    BACKGROUND: Deep-frying oil has been found to cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of the effect of deep-frying palm oil on IBD still remains undetermined.

    RESULTS: In the present study, bioinformatics and cell biology were used to investigate the functions and signal pathway enrichments of differentially expressed genes. The bioinformatics analysis of three original microarray datasets (GSE73661, GSE75214 and GSE126124) in the NCBI-Gene Expression Omnibus database showed 17 down-regulated genes (logFC  0) existed in the enteritis tissue. Meanwhile, pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analysis suggested that IBD is relevant to cytotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Caco-2 cells were treated with the main oxidation products of deep-frying oil-total polar compounds (TPC) and its components (polymerized triglyceride, oxidized triglycerides and triglyceride degradation products) isolated from deep-frying oil. The flow cytometry experiment revealed that TPC and its components could induce apoptosis, especially for oxidized triglyceride. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that TPC and its component could induce Caco-2 cell apoptosis through AQP8/CXCL1/TNIP3/IL-1.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides fundamental knowledge for understanding the effects of deep-frying oils on the cytotoxic and inflammatory of Caco-2 cells, in addition to clarifying the molecular function mechanism of deep-frying oil in IBD. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Han C, Zheng Y, Wang L, Zhou C, Wang J, He J, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Feb 14.
    PMID: 36786016 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12499
    BACKGROUND: Extracted proteins of alternative animal origin tend to present strong off-flavor perception due to physicochemical interactions of coextracted off-flavor compounds with proteins. To investigate the relationship between absorption behaviors of volatile aromas and the processes-induced variations in protein microstructures and molecular conformations, duck liver protein isolate (DLp) was subjected to heating (65/100 °C, 15 min) and ultra-high pressure (UHP, 100-500 MPa/10 min, 28 °C) treatments to obtain differential unfolded protein states.

    RESULTS: Heat and UHP treatments induced the unfolding of DLp to varied degrees, as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption, circular dichroism spectra and surface hydrophobicity measurements. Two types of heating-denatured states with varied unfolding degrees were obtained, while UHP at both levels of 100/500 MPa caused partial unfolding of DLp and the presence of a molten-globule state, which significantly enhanced the binding affinity between DLp and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal. In particular, significantly modified secondary structures of DLp were observed in heating-denatured samples. Excessive denaturing and unfolding degrees resulted in no significant changes in the absorption behavior of the volatile ligand, as characterized by observations of fluorescence quenching and analysis of headspace concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: Defining process-induced conformational transition behavior of matrix proteins could be a promising strategy to regulate food flavor attributes and, particularly, to produce DLp coextracted with limited off-flavor components by modifying their interaction during extraction processes. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sim EY, Wu TY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Oct;90(13):2153-62.
    PMID: 20718020 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4127
    There is an urgent need globally to find alternative sustainable steps to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) originated from mismanagement of urban wastes with increasing disposal cost. Furthermore, a conglomeration of ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle is contributing towards the generation of more MSW. In this context, vermicomposting offers excellent potential to promote safe, hygienic and sustainable management of biodegradable MSW. It has been demonstrated that, through vermicomposting, MSW such as city garbage, household and kitchen wastes, vegetable wastes, paper wastes, human faeces and others could be sustainably transformed into organic fertiliser or vermicompost that provides great benefits to agricultural soil and plants. Generally, earthworms are sensitive to their environment and require temperature, moisture content, pH and sometimes ventilation at proper levels for the optimum vermicomposting process. Apart from setting the optimum operational conditions for the vermicomposting process, other approaches such as pre-composting, inoculating micro-organisms into MSW and redesigning the conventional vermireactor could be introduced to further enhance the vermicomposting of MSW. Thus the present mini-review discusses the potential of introducing vermicomposting in MSW management, the benefits of vermicomposted MSW to plants, suggestions on how to enhance the vermicomposting of MSW as well as risk management in the vermicomposting of MSW.
  5. Ridzuan R, Rafii MY, Mohammad Yusoff M, Ismail SI, Miah G, Usman M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jan 15;99(1):269-280.
    PMID: 29851100 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9169
    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the different desirable characters among chili genotypes has expanded the effective selection for crop improvement. Identification of genetically superior parents is important in assortment of the best parents to develop new chili hybrids.

    RESULTS: This study was done to assess the hereditary assorted variety of selected genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on their morphophysiological and yield traits in two planting seasons. The biochemical properties, capsaicinoid content (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), total phenolics content and antioxidant action determination of unripe and ripe chili pepper fruits were carried out in dry fruits. AVPP9813 and Kulai 907 were observed to have high fruit yields, with 541.39 and 502.64 g per plant, respectively. The most increased genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were shown by the fruit number per plant (49.71% and 66.04%, respectively). High heritability was observed in yield characters viz-à-viz fruit weight, length and girth and indicated high genetic advance. Eight groups were obtained from the cluster analysis. For the biochemical analysis, the capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content were high in Chili Bangi 3 at unripe and ripe fruit stages, while for antioxidant activity SDP203 was the highest in ripe dry fruit.

    CONCLUSION: Higher GCV and PCV, combined with moderate to high heritability and high hereditary progress, were seen in number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit weight per fruit. These findings are beneficial for chili pepper breeders to select desirable quantitative characters in C. annuum in their breeding program. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G, Putranto A, Udoenoh NR
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jan 30;101(2):398-413.
    PMID: 32627847 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10649
    BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time.

    RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Soo YN, Tan CP, Tan PY, Khalid N, Tan TB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Apr;101(6):2455-2462.
    PMID: 33034060 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10871
    BACKGROUND: The popularity of coffee, the second most consumed beverage in the world, contributes to the high demand for liquid non-dairy creamer (LNDC). In this study, palm olein emulsions (as LNDCs) were investigated as alternatives to the more common soybean oil-based LNDCs. LNDCs were prepared via different homogenization pressures (100-300 bar) using different types of oil (palm olein and soybean oil) and concentrations of DATEM emulsifier (5-20 g kg-1 ).

    RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P  0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.

    CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Chong SG, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Tan SJ, Shaari K, Tan JK
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Apr;103(6):3146-3156.
    PMID: 36426592 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12355
    BACKGROUND: Soybeans (Glycine max) are high in proteins and isoflavones, which offer many health benefits. It has been suggested that the fermentation process enhances the nutrients in the soybeans. Organic foods are perceived as better than non-organic foods in terms of health benefits, yet little is known about the difference in the phytochemical content that distinguishes the quality of organic soybeans from non-organic soybeans. This study investigated the chemical profiles of non-organic (G, T, U, UB) and organic (C, COF, A, R, B, Z) soybeans (G. max [L.] Merr.) and their metabolite changes after fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus.

    RESULTS: A clear separation was only observed between non-organic G and organic Z, which were then selected for further investigation in the fermentation of soybeans (GF and ZF). All four groups (G, Z, GF, ZF) were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy along with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this way a total of 41 and 47 metabolites were identified respectively, with 12 in common. A clear variation (|log1.5 FC| > 2 and P 

  9. Mirhosseini H, Tan CP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Jun;90(8):1308-16.
    PMID: 20474048 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3928
    The constituents in a food emulsion interact with each other, either physically or chemically, determining the overall physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the final product. Thus, the main objective of present study was to investigate the effect of emulsion components on beverage emulsion properties.
  10. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

  11. Tan PY, Tan TB, Chang HW, Mwangi WW, Tey BT, Chan ES, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov;101(14):5963-5971.
    PMID: 33840091 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11249
    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past decade, Pickering emulsion has been increasingly utilized for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds due to its high stability and biocompatibility. In the present work, palm tocotrienols were initially encapsulated in a calcium carbonate Pickering emulsion, which was then subjected to alginate gelation and subsequent chitosan coating. The effects of wall material (alginate and chitosan) concentrations, gelation pH and time, and chitosan coating time on the encapsulation efficiency of palm tocotrienols were explored.

    RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.

    CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Liu Q, Wu TY, Pu L, Sun J
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Oct 09.
    PMID: 34626124 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11579
    BACKGROUND: Study of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency can provide basal data for the decision-making of food production and environmental impact assessment of fertilization. This research aimed to compare trends of the FI and efficiency during 1961-2018 in developed and developing countries with a simple method.

    RESULTS: The FI in China increased rapidly from about 5 kg ha-1 in 1961 to the highest value of 282 kg ha-1 in 2014, then decreased to about 231 kg ha-1 in 2018. Although the fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) showed a slight downward trend, slight upward trend was observed for the fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE). FIs in India, Iran and Turkey continuously rose from5 kg ha-1 in 1961to 116, 49(148 in 2006),120kg ha-1 in 2018, respectively, while FAEs showed a significant fluctuation around horizontal direction or downward trends and their FIEs showed a slight fluctuation downward. FIs of Britain, Germany and France except USA, increased rapidly from about 200-400 kg ha-1 in 1960s to peaks of 430-530 kg ha-1 in 1980s, then dropped to 150-340 kg ha-1 around 2010, and then up to current level of 200-350 kg ha-1 , while FAEs and FIEs increased rapidly.

    CONCLUSION: France and Germany were found to have moderate chemical fertilizer input and the highest FIE. Thus, their experiences of ecological agricultures in both countries could provide good examples for the developing countries to follow. In short, models of FAE and FIE were easier way to reflect the fertilizer efficiencies in developed and developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Adiiba SH, Chan ES, Lee YY, Amelia, Chang MY, Song CP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Dec;102(15):6921-6929.
    PMID: 35662022 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12053
    BACKGROUND: Crude palm oil (CPO) is rich with phytonutrients such as carotenoids and tocols which possesses many health benefits. The aim of this research was to develop a methanol-free process to produce palm phytonutrients via enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, triacylglycerol was hydrolyzed into free fatty acids (FFAs) using three different types of liquid lipases derived from Aspergillus oryzae (ET 2.0), Aspergillus niger (Habio) and Candida antartica (CALB).

    RESULTS: ET 2.0 was found to be the best enzyme for hydrolysis. Under the optimum condition, the FFA content achievable was 790 g kg-1 after 24 h of reaction with 1:1 water-to-oil mass ratio at 50 °C and stirring speed of 9 × g. Furthermore, with the addition of 2 g kg-1 ascorbic acid, it was found that 98% of carotenoids and 96% of tocols could be retained after hydrolysis.

    CONCLUSION: This work shows that enzymatic hydrolysis, which is inherently safer, cleaner and sustainable is feasible to replace the conventional methanolysis for the production of palm phytonutrients. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. George DS, Razali Z, Santhirasegaram V, Somasundram C
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Jun;96(8):2851-60.
    PMID: 26350493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7454
    Postharvest treatments of fruits using techniques such as ultraviolet-C have been linked with maintenance of the fruit quality as well as shelf-life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV-C irradiation.
  15. Abdul Manan SF, Li J, Hsieh CF, Faubion J, Shi YC
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Sep 08.
    PMID: 34498279 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11523
    BACKGROUND: Lipids account for 2.0-2.5% of wheat flour by dry weight and affect properties and quality of cereal foods. A new method was developed to extract non-starch lipids from wheat flour. Wheat flour was first hydrolyzed with a protease and followed by extraction of non-starch lipids by water-saturated butanol (WSB).

    RESULT: Protein hydrolysis by protease followed by extraction of non-starch lipids with WSB increased yield to 1.9 ± 0.3% from 1.0 ± 0.1% with no protease treatment. The lipid profile showed a significant increase in phospholipid compounds extracted with protease hydrolysis (5.9 ± 0.8 nmol·g-1 ) versus without enzymatic treatment (2.4 ± 1.3 nmol g-1 ).

    CONCLUSION: Improved lipid extraction yield and phospholipid compounds following protease-assisted extraction method provided additional insight towards the understanding of protein-lipid interaction in wheat flour. The new protease-assisted extraction method may be applied to analyzing non-starch lipids in other types of wheat flours and other cereal flours. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Hii CL, Law CL, Cloke M, Sharif S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Jan 30;91(2):239-46.
    PMID: 20872824 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4176
    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C.
  17. Lim SL, Wu TY, Lim PN, Shak KP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Apr;95(6):1143-56.
    PMID: 25130895 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6849
    Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined.
  18. Devi Ramaiya S, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, King WS, Shaffiq Sahrir MA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1198-205.
    PMID: 23027609 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5876
    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp).
  19. Ado MA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Ghazali HM, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Feb;95(3):635-42.
    PMID: 25048579 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
    The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
  20. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Abas F, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Sep;97(12):4169-4179.
    PMID: 28233369 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
    BACKGROUND: Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

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