METHODS: The National Nephrology Societies of the region responded to a questionnaire on KRT practices. The responses were based on the latest registry data, acceptable community-based studies and societal perceptions. The representative countries were divided into high income and higher-middle income (HI & HMI) and low income and lower-middle income (LI & LMI) groups.
RESULTS: Data provided by 15 countries showed almost similar percentage of GDP as health expenditure (4%-7%). But there was a significant difference in per capita income (HI & HMI -US$ 28 129 vs. LI & LMI - US$ 1710.2) between the groups. Even after having no significant difference in monthly cost of haemodialysis (HD) and PD in LI & LMI countries, they have poorer PD utilization as compared to HI & HMI countries (3.4% vs. 10.1%); the reason being lack of formal training/incentives and time constraints for the nephrologist while lack of reimbursement and poor general awareness of modalities has been a snag for the patients. The region expects ≥10% PD growth in the near future. Hong Kong and Thailand with 'PD first' policy have the highest PD utilization.
CONCLUSION: Important deterrents to PD underutilization were lack of PD centric policies, lackadaisical patient/physician's attitude, lack of structured patient awareness programs, formal training programs and affordability.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the correlation between HCV Ag and HCV RNA and the cost implications of different diagnostic algorithms to diagnose active HCV infection using Anti-HCV, HCV Ag, and HCV RNA. Pre-dialysis blood was tested for both HCV Ag and HCV RNA. HCV Ag was tested with Abbott ARCHITECT HCV Ag test.
RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-seven haemodialysis patients were recruited from 20 centres with mean age of 57.68 ± 12.48 years, and male constitutes 56.8% (129) of the study population. HCV Ag correlated well with HCV RNA (Spearman test coefficient 0.943, p
METHODS: The national nephrology societies of the region; responded to the questionnaire; based on latest registries, acceptable community-based studies and society perceptions. The countries in the region were classified into Group 1 (High|higher-middle-income) and Group 2 (lower|lowermiddle income). Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test were used for comparison.
RESULTS: Fifteen countries provided the data. The average incidence of ESKD was estimated at 226.7 per million population (pmp), (Group 1 vs. Group 2, 305.8 vs. 167.8 pmp) and average prevalence at 940.8 pmp (Group 1 vs. Group 2, 1306 vs. 321 pmp). Group 1 countries had a higher incidence and prevalence of ESKD. Diabetes, hypertension and chronic glomerulonephritis were most common causes. The mean age in Group 2 was lower by a decade (Group 1 vs. Group 2-59.45 vs 47.7 years).
CONCLUSION: Haemodialysis was the most common kidney replacement therapy in both groups and conservative management of ESKD was the second commonest available treatment option within Group 2. The disease burden was expected to grow >20% in 50% of Group 1 countries and 78% of Group 2 countries along with the parallel growth in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
METHODS: Shear wave elastography assessments were performed in 75 CKD patients who underwent renal biopsy. The SWE-derived estimates of the tissue Young's modulus (YM), given as kilopascals (kPa), were measured. YM was correlated to patients' renal histological scores, broadly categorized into glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular scores.
RESULTS: Young's modulus correlates significantly with tubulointerstitial score (ρ = 0.442, P
METHODS: This was an observational cohort on incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients contributed person-time from the date of ESKD diagnosis until death, transplant or end of study on December 31, 2014, whichever occurred first. An extended Cox regression model with time-varying exposure to dialysis was used to account for immortal time bias.
RESULTS: Of 3990 incident ESKD patients included, 70.2% patients initiated dialysis; 78.8% with haemodialysis (HD) while the remaining 21.2% with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Dialysis reduced hazard of death in both elderly and non-elderly patients even after controlling for comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 0.68 and HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.69, 0.85, respectively). HD was protective in both the elderly and non-elderly (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.45, 0.63 and HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64, 0.80, respectively). PD significantly reduced risk of death compared to no dialysis in the elderly but not in the non-elderly.
CONCLUSION: Dialysis improved survival in all incident ESKD patients. The findings suggested a larger protection offered by HD. Although improvement in survival from initiating dialysis was large, its true benefit should take overall quality of life into account. SUMMARY AT A GLANCE This observational study showed that initiation of dialysis improves the survival of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients of all age groups, but the quality of life is an important aspect that has not been explored.
METHODS: Renal registries reporting on patients starting RRT per million population for ESRD by PRD from 2005 to 2014, were identified by internet search and literature review. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of the time trends was computed using Joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the incidence of RRT for ESRD due to diabetes mellitus (DM) in Europe (AAPC = -0.9; 95%CI -1.3; -0.5) and to hypertension/renal vascular disease (HT/RVD) in Australia (AAPC = -1.8; 95%CI -3.3; -0.3), Canada (AAPC = -2.9; 95%CI -4.4; -1.5) and Europe (AAPC = -1.1; 95%CI -2.1; -0.0). A decrease or stabilization was observed for glomerulonephritis in all regions and for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in all regions except for Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. An increase of 5.2-16.3% was observed for DM, HT/RVD and ADPKD in Malaysia and the Republic of Korea.
CONCLUSION: Large international differences exist in the trends in incidence of RRT by primary renal disease. Mapping of these international trends is the first step in defining the causes and successful preventative measures of CKD.
METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Clinical Trials from inception until December 2014, to identify randomized controlled trials of intravenous iron and ESA, in patients undergoing haemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease. Dosing of IV iron in concordance with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines was considered optimal iron therapy.
RESULTS: Of the 28 randomized controlled trials identified, seven met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results of random-effects meta-analysis show a statistically significant weighted mean (95% CI) difference of -1733 [-3073, -392] units/week in ESA dose for optimal iron versus suboptimal iron. The weighted average change in ESA dose was a reduction of 23% (range -7% to -55%) attributable to appropriate dosing of intravenous iron. A comparison of intravenous iron versus oral iron/no iron (five trials) showed a greater reduction in ESA dose, although this did not reach statistical significance (weighted mean difference, 95% CI: -2,433 [-5183, 318] units/week). The weighted average change in ESA dose across the five trials was a reduction of 31% (range -8% to -55%).
CONCLUSION: Significant reductions in ESA dosing may be achieved with optimal intravenous iron usage in the haemodialysis population, and suboptimal iron use may require higher ESA dosing to manage anaemia.
METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study on patients with SIRS. Plasma creatinine (pCr) and NGAL were measured on ICU admission. Patients were classified according to the occurrence of AKI and sepsis.
RESULTS: Of 225 patients recruited, 129 (57%) had sepsis of whom 67 (52%) also had AKI. 96 patients (43%) had non-infectious SIRS, of whom 20 (21%) also had AKI. NGAL concentrations were higher in AKI patients within both the sepsis and non-infectious SIRS cohorts (both P
METHODS: Retrospective data on serum calcium and infusion rates was collected from 2011-2015. The relationship between peak calcium efflux (PER) and time was determined using a scatterplot and linear regression. A comparison between regimens was made based on treatment efficacy (hypocalcaemia duration, total infusion amount and time) and calcium excursions (outside target range, peak and trough calcium) using bar charts and an unpaired t-test.
RESULTS: Fifty-one and 34 patients on the original and new regimens respectively were included. Mean PER was lower (2.16 vs 2.56 mmol/h; P = 0.03) and occurred earlier (17.6 vs 23.2 h; P = 0.13) for the new regimen. Both scatterplot and regression showed a large correlation between PER and time (R-square 0.64, SE 1.53, P
METHODS: A total 621 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59ml/min/1.73m(2) (CKD stage 3 & 4) were selected and followed up for 10 years or until ESRD or death, whichever occurred first. Subjects who did not meet inclusion criteria were excluded (n=1474).
RESULTS: Annual cumulative decline in eGFR was 3.01±0.40 ml/min/1.73m(2) . Overall disease progression was observed in 60% patients while 18% died. Among patients with CKD stage 3, 21% progressed to stage 4, 10% to stage 5ND (non-dialysis) and 31% to RRT while mortality was observed in 16% patients. On the other hand, 8% patients with CKD stage 4 progressed to stage 5ND, 31% to RRT and mortality was observed in 24% cases. Patients with CVD, higher systolic blood pressure, elevated phosphate levels, heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and use of diuretics were more likely to develop ESRD. Advancing age, low eGFR, low systolic blood pressure, low hemoglobin and baseline diabetes were found to be significant predictors of mortality while being female reduced risk of mortality.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that, in this CKD cohort, patients were more likely to develop ESRD than death. Prime importance should be given to mild forms of CKD to retard and even reverse CKD progression.