We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene and fragments of four nuclear loci: ApoB, RAG2, IRBP1 and BRCA1. These data allowed us to provide new insights into the diversity of the Asiatic water shrews of Indochina. A new, highly divergent genetic lineage of Chimarrogale was found in southern Vietnam, and this lineage included specimens from the provinces of Kon Tum, Dak Lak, and Lam Dong. Such finding represents the newest and southernmost records of Chimarrogale in Indochina. Morphological analysis classified the specimens from southern Vietnam as C. varennei proper, which is restricted to that region, whereas the polymorphic C. himalayica, which contained at least four cytochrome b haplogroups, occurred in central and northern Vietnam and southern China. This distinct C. varennei lineage closely related to the C. platycephalus + C. leander clade suggests the existence of an unknown glacial refuge in Tay Nguyen Plateau, southern Vietnam. Because the Bornean C. phaeura (i) was sister-group of the rest of Chimarrogale sensu lato and (ii) had a high genetic divergence (~15% for cytochrome b) and geographical isolation, we suggest that C. phaeura be placed into a separate genus, Crossogale Thomas, 1921. This genus should also include C. sumatrana (Sumatra) and C. hantu (Peninsular Malaysia). On those grounds, we propose a new classification system for Asiatic water shrews.
Three new Indo-West Pacific species of pinnotherid crabs are described, one each of Arcotheres, Buergeres and Nepinnotheres. Arcotheres pollus, described from Paway Island, Mergui Archipelago, is most similar to A. boninensis (Stimpson, 1858), A. pernicola (Bürger, 1895) and A. purpureus (Alcock, 1900), sharing a transversely ovate carapace and long, slender, almost styliform dactyli of P4 and 5 that are about twice the length of those of P2 and 3. Buergeres choprai, described from Papua New Guinea, is most similar to B. deccanesis (Chopra, 1931) from eastern India but differentiated by segment proportions and setation of the walking legs. Buergeres tenuipes (Bürger, 1895) is synonymised with B. ortmanni (Bürger, 1895), which is also reported for the first time from Indonesia. A male of an undetermined species of Buergeres from the Philippines, possibly B. ortmanni, is figured and described, documenting the gonopod morphology in Buergeres for the first time. A key to the species of Buergeres based on females is provided. Nepinnotheres fulvia sp. nov. is also described from Papua New Guinea, and resembles N. cardii (Bürger, 1895) from the Philippines and Malaysia but can be distinguished by features of the chelipeds and maxilliped 3.
Species of the bopyrid isopod genus Rhopalione Pérez, 1920, are parasites of Indo-West Pacific pinnotherid crabs. Unlike other bopyrid parasites of brachyurans that occupy the branchial chambers, however, species of Rhopalione (subfamily Pseudioninae) infest the abdominal cavity. Prior to the present study, four species of Rhopalione were recognized: R. atrinicolae Page, 1985 (New Zealand), R. incerta (Bonnier, 1900) (Madagascar), R. sinensis Markham, 1990 (East Asia), and R. uromyzon Pérez, 1920 (Persian Gulf). A fifth species of Rhopalione, from Perhentian Besar, Malaysia, is described herein, parasitic on the pinnotherid crab Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). Keys are provided to females and males of the species in the genus.
Micryletta inornata (Boulenger 1890), the type species of the genus Micryletta, was originally described from the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. Subsequently, this species has been widely reported from Sundaland (Sumatra and Malay Peninsula), Indo-China, Northeast India and South Andaman, up to southern China and Taiwan. However, since the original description there has been no further report of this species from the type locality or the island. During a herpetofaunal survey in Sumatra, several specimens that are morphologically concordant with the original description and the syntypes of M. inornata were found, and thus the species was rediscovered after 125 years. Here, we provide a redescription of the species based on the freshly collected specimens, along with a detailed morphological and molecular comparison with known congeners. Further, using molecular data from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, our study recovered the Sumatran M. inornata as a phylogenetically distinct lineage from all other populations previously referred to this species. This confirms that all known Micryletta 'inornata' populations from regions outside Sumatra constitute several other lineages representing either new species or previously available names currently considered as synonyms, consequently requiring taxonomic validation in the future.
Eutropis rugifera has long been identified as a widespread species complex distributed in Nicobar, Peninsular Malaysia, Greater Sundaic Islands, Bali, Sulawesi and the Philippines. This skink was described by Stoliczka in 1870 from Nicobar Island based on a single specimen (holotype by monotypy). Later, Peters (1871), Bartlett (1895) and Werner (1896) described three more species which were morphologically similar to Euprepes percarinatus (from Java), Mabuia rubricollis (Borneo) and M. quinquecarinata (Sumatra) respectively, which are currently considered junior objective synonyms of Eutropis rugifera. We examined all the available synonym types and voucher specimens of Eutropis rugifera deposited at several museums. A morphological examination of the types of this species and mtDNA analysis (584 bp of 16S rRNA) of the samples from different biogeographic regions revealed that Eutropis rugifera from Nicobar Island, Bali Island, and Bawean Island are composed of a monophyletic species. However, the taxonomic status of the above population requires further clarification, and the population in Bawean Island may represent a cryptic species. Finally, we provide a complete redescription of E. rugifera based on its holotype.
Halone Walker (1854) is one of the small genera within the tribe Lithosiini of subfamily Arctiinae (Erebidae). It was established for its type species, Halone sobria Walker, 1854, from Australia. The genus Halone is distributed in Southeast Asia (total 14 spp.: 3 spp. from India; 1 sp. from Thailand; 9 spp. from Malay Peninsula; 1 sp. from Papua New Guinea) to Australia (total 14 spp.), with 28 species described by several authors in various genera: Halone sobria Walker (1854), Setina sinuata Wallengren (1860), Pitane sejuncta Felder Rogenhofer (1875), Mosoda consolatrix Rosenstock (1885), Mosoda servilis and M. ophiodes Meyrick (1886), Sorocostia interspersa Lucas (1890), Halone coryphoea and H. ebaea Hampson (1914), Eurypepla pteridaula Turner (1922), Halone epiopsis and H. prosenes Turner (1940), Psapharacis camptopleura and Scaphidriotis xylogramma Turner (1899) from Australia; Halone furcifascia Hampson (1914) from Papua New Guinea; Halone ariadna, H. bifornica, H. dissimulata, H. oblimarea, H. pillea, H. iuguma, H. marketae, H. solitus and H. viktorai Bucsek (2012; 2014) from Malay Peninsula; Halone straturata Černý (2009) from Thailand; Aemene diffusifascia Swinhoe (1896), Aemene flavescens Hampson (1898), and Halone flavinigra Hampson (1907) from India. The genus is cataloged in Poole (1989) and Edwards (1996).
Based on material deposited in museum collections, twelve species within Mansonella sensu lato were examined and their descriptions amended. Based on additional morphological details, the erection of the new monotypic subgenus Filyamagutia Bain & Uni for M. (F.) akitensis (Uni, 1983), and the new combination M. (Pseudolitomosa) musasabi (Yamaguti, 1941) Bain & Uni are proposed. A new subspecies, M. (Tetrapetalonema) atelensis amazonae Bain & Guerrero is described and a key to the seven subgenera of Mansonella is provided. Furthermore, the elevation of Sandnema to full genus rank comprising the two species S. digitatum (Chandler, 1929) n. comb. and S. sunci (Sandground, 1933) n. comb., is proposed. Host and geographic records for the species of Mansonella and Sandnema are included.
A revision of the genus Leopoldamys is presented, and both the species composition and distribution in Indochina and Sundaic regions is reinvestigated. The phylogeny of the genus is recovered based on Cyt b, COI, and IRBP gene analyses. Five basal and 16 secondary monophyletic phylogenetic lineages were identified. A taxonomic reassessment of the continental and Sundaic populations is performed based on morphological verification of the genetically defined clades. Six clades were recovered in the phylogenetic analyses and correspond to morphologically defined species: L. revertens (distributed in lowlands of eastern and central Indochina), L. herberti (western and central Indochina, northward to northern Vietnam), L. edwardsi (China and northern Vietnam, northward of 21 degrees N), L. milleti (endemic of Dalat Plateau, southern Vietnam), L. sabanus (Borneo), and L. vociferans (lowlands of the Malacca Peninsula, northward to southwestern Thailand). The absence of proper L. sabanus in continental Indochina is revealed. The substitute name for the species known from the majority of Indochina under the name of L. sabanus should be L. revertens. The name L. neilli, which has been ascribed to populations from Thailand and Vietnam, is a junior synonym of L. herberti. Two related but rather divergent clades are found in Sumatra and the Malacca Peninsula. Based on their considerable genetic distances, these forms should be regarded as separate species from the L. sabanus type-bearing populations of Borneo, or as the members of L. sabanus polytypic superspecies. The substitute name for the lineage-bearing taxon from Malacca should be L. vociferans. The continental populations of Leopoldamys can be distinguished from each other by external and cranial characters and may be subdivided into four species. Two of these species (L. revertens and L. milleti) are well distinguished by external and cranial morphology, whereas the other two species (L. herberti and L. edwardsi) may be treated as sibling species that are difficult to distinguish based on morphological characters.
This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M. similispupillae sp. nov. have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The second genus including species in which the males have deflexed elytral apices is Trisinuata gen. nov., where all males have light organ in ventrite 7 bipartite and posterolateral projections expanded; it is proposed for eight New Guinean species: T. microthorax (Olivier), T. minor (Ballantyne), T. papuae (McDermott) and T. similispapuae(Ballantyne) are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier, T. papuana (Olivier) previously known only from a female, has males associated and is transferred from Luciola, and T. caudabifurca sp. nov., T. dimidiata sp. nov. and T. apicula sp. nov. are described. Females of T. similispapuae (Ballantyne) have two pairs of wide bursa plates. Luciola s. str. is defined by scoring the type species L. italica (L), Bourgeoisia Olivier and Lampyroidea (based on its type species syriaca Costa) both of which are submerged into Luciola; Luciola s. str is addressed here from four Pacific Island species: L. hypocrita Olivier, L. antipodum Bourgeois both transferred from Bourgeoisia; L. aquilaclarasp. nov. and L. oculofissa sp. nov. are described. L. oculofissa sp. nov. is the only Luciolinae male known to lack light organs. Females of L. italica and L. hypocrita lack bursa plates.Pacifica gen. nov. is proposed for five species from the Solomon Islands transferred from Pygatyphella(Ballantyne), and which the phylogenetic analysis shows to be distinctive viz. P. limbatifusca (Ballantyne), P. limbatipennis (Pic), P. plagiata (Blanchard), P. russellia (Ballantyne), and P. salomonis (Olivier). A monotypic genus Poluninius gen. nov. is proposed for Pol. selangoriensis sp. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia. The genera Colophotia, Pteroptyx, Pyrophanes, and Pygoluciola are treated in an abbreviated fashion with generic diagnoses, lists of, and keys to, species. Pteroptyx bearni Olivier and P. tener Olivier are characterised from type specimens and female bursae and P. similis Ballantyne is synonymised with P. bearni. Luciola semilimbata Olivier is transferred to Pyrophanes, and Luciola cowleyi Blackburn to Pygoluciola. The following species are treated as species incertae sedis: L. melancholica Olivier, L. ruficollis Guérin-Ménéville. The New Guinean records of Luciola tenuicornis Olivier, L. timida Olivier and Photinus cinctellus Motschulsky are suspect. Fifteen of the species treated here are recognised by flashing patterns. The functions of the terminal abdominal modifications, origins of the Australopacific firefly fauna, and use of female and larval characters in interpretations of relationships are considered.
This overview of the Luciolinae addresses the fauna of S. E. Asia including India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, and the Australopacific area of Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji.Of the 28 genera now recognised in the Luciolinae we address 27 genera from the study area as defined above, including three new genera which are described herein, and 222 species including 13 species newly described herein. Photuroluciola Pic from Madagascar is the only Luciolinae genus not addressed here. A key to genera is presented. Keys to species are either included here or referenced in existing literature. Twelve genera have had no new taxonomic decisions made nor are any new species records listed, and are addressed in an abbreviated fashion, with short diagnoses and plates of features of life stages: Aquatica Fu et al. 2010, Australoluciola Ballantyne 2013, Convexa Ballantyne 2009, Emeia Fu et al. 2012a, Inflata Boontop 2015, Lloydiella Ballantyne 2009, Missimia Ballantyne 2009, Pteroptyx Olivier 1902, Pyrophanes Olivier 1885, Sclerotia Ballantyne 2016, Triangulara Pimpasalee 2016, and Trisinuata Ballantyne 2013. Abscondita Ballantyne 2013 contains 8 species, and includes new records for Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. chinensis (L.) (which is newly synonymised with Luciola succincta Bourgeois), Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883) including a first record from both Laos and Thailand, and Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858). Luciola pallescens Gorham 1880 is transferred to Abscondita and the pronotal colour range is addressed from a wide range of localities. Abs. berembun Nada sp. nov. and Abs. jerangau Nada sp. nov. are described from Malaysia. Hooked bursa plates are described for pallescens and berembun. Aquilonia Ballantyne 2009 is expanded to include 3 species. Gilvainsula Ballantyne 2009, represented by two species from the south eastern coast of New Guinea is synonymised under Aquilonia Ballantyne 2009, which is briefly redescribed and keyed from: Aquil. costata (Lea) from northern Australia, including many new records, Aquil. messoria (Ballantyne) comb. nov. and Aquil. similismessoria (Ballantyne) comb. nov. Asymmetricata Ballantyne 2009 now includes 4 species. As. bicoloripes (Pic 1927) comb. nov. and As. humeralis (Walker 1858) comb. nov. are transferred from Luciola, with L. doriae Olivier 1885, L. impressa Olivier 1910b and L. notatipennis Olivier 1909a newly synonymised with As. humeralis. Luciola aemula Olivier 1891 is synonymised with As. ovalis (Hope 1831). The variation in the extent of the anterior median emargination of the light organ in ventrite 7, and the possibility of a bipartite light organ in males of As. circumdata (Motsch. 1854) is explored. Females of both As. circumdata and As. ovalis (Hope 1831) are without bursa plates and the distinctively shaped median oviduct plate in each is described. Records from Thailand are recorded for both As. circumdata and As. ovalis. Atyphella Olliff 1890 now contains 28 species with 4 transferred from other genera, and one new species: Aty. abdominalis (Olivier 1886) comb. nov. and Aty. striata (Fabricius 1801) comb. nov. are transferred from Luciola, with Aty. carolinae Olivier 1911b and Aty. rennellia (Ballantyne 2009) comb. nov. transferred from Magnalata Ballantyne 2009. Atyphella telokdalam Ballantyne sp. nov. from Indonesia is described herein. Atyphella is now known from records in the Philippines and Indonesia as well as Australia and New Guinea. Colophotia Motschulsky 1853 is considered here from seven species for which intact types can be located for three. An abbreviated revision based on the United States National Museum collection only is presented, with specimens of C. bakeri Pic 1924, C. brevis Olivier 1903a, C. plagiata (Erichson 1834) and C. praeusta (Eschscholtz 1822) redescribed, using where possible features of males, females and larvae. Colophotia particulariventris Pic 1938 is newly synonymised with C. praeusta. Colophotia miranda Olivier 1886 and L. truncata Olivier 1886 are treated as species incertae sedis. Curtos Motschulsky 1845 includes 19 species with suggestions made, but not yet formalised, for the possible transfer of the following seven species from Luciola: Luciola complanata Gorham 1895, L. costata Pic 1929, L. delauneyi Bourgeois 1890, L. deplanata Pic 1929, L. extricans Walker 1858, L. multicostulata Pic 1927 and L. nigripes Gorham 1903. Curtos is not revised here. Emarginata Ballantyne gen nov. is described for E. trilucida (Jeng et al. 2003b) comb. nov., transferred from Luciola and characterised by the emarginated elytral apex. An extended range of specimens from Thailand is listed. Kuantana Ballantyne gen. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia is described from K. menayah gen. et sp. nov. having bipartite light organs in ventrite 7 and an asymmetrical tergite 8 which is not emarginated on its left side. Female has no bursa plates. Luciola Laporte 1833 s. stricto as defined by a population of the type species Luciola italica (L. 1767) from Pisa, Italy, is further expanded and considered to comprise the following19 species: L. antipodum (Bourgeois 1884), L. aquilaclara Ballantyne 2013, L. chapaensis Pic 1923 which is synonymised with L. atripes Pic 1929, L. curtithorax Pic 1928, L. filiformis Olivier 1913c, L. horni Bourgeois 1905, L. hypocrita Olivier 1888, L. italica (L. 1767), L. kagiana Matsumura 1928, L. oculofissa Ballantyne 2013, L. pallidipes Pic 1928 which is synonymised with L. fletcheri Pic 1935, L. parvula Kiesenwetter 1874, L. satoi Jeng Yang 2003, L. tuberculata Yiu 2017, and two species treated as near L. laticollis Gorham 1883, and near L. nicollieri Bugnion 1922. The following are described as new: L. niah Jusoh sp. nov., L. jengai Nada sp. nov. and L. tiomana Ballantyne sp. nov. Luciola niah sp. nov. female has two wide bursa plates on each side of the bursa. Luciola s. lato (as defined here) consists of 36 species. Twenty-seven species formerly standing under Luciola have been assigned to other genera or synonymised. Seven species are recommended for transfer to Curtos, and 32 species now stand under species incertae sedis. Magnalata Ballantyne is reduced to the type species M. limbata and redescribed. Medeopteryx Ballantyne 2013 is expanded to 20 species with the addition of two new combinations, Med. semimarginata (Olivier 1883) comb. nov. and Med. timida (Olivier 1883) comb. nov., both transferred from Luciola, and one new species, Med. fraseri Nada sp. nov. from Malaysia. The range of this genus now extends from Australia and the island of New Guinea to SE Asia. Medeopteryx semimarginata females have wide paired bursa plates. Pygoluciola Wittmer 1939 now includes 19 species with 5 new species: P. bangladeshi Ballantyne sp. nov., P. dunguna Nada 2018, P. matalangao Ballantyne sp. nov. (scored by the code name 'Jeng Matalanga' in Ballantyne Lambkin 2013), P. phupan Ballantyne sp. nov. and P. tamarat Jusoh sp. nov. Six species are transferred from Luciola: P. abscondita (Olivier 1891) comb. nov., P. ambita (Olivier 1896) comb. nov., P. calceata (Olivier 1905) comb. nov., P. insularis (Olivier 1883) comb. nov., P. nitescens (Olivier 1903b) comb. nov. and P. vitalisi (Pic 1934) comb. nov., and redescribed from males, and includes female reproductive anatomy for P. nitescens comb. nov. and P. dunguna, both of which have hooked bursa plates. Serratia Ballantyne gen. nov. is erected for S. subuyania gen. et sp. nov. and characterised by the serrate nature of certain antennal flagellar segments in the male. The following 37 species listed under species incertae sedis are further explored: Colophotia miranda Olivier 1886, Lampyris serraticornis Boisduval 1835, Luciola angusticollis Olivier 1886, L. antennalis Bourgeois 1905, L. antica (Boisduval 1835), L. apicalis (Eschscholtz 1822), L. aurantiaca Pic 1927, L. bicoloriceps Pic 1924, L. binhana Pic 1927, L. bourgeoisi Olivier 1895, L. dilatata Pic 1929, L. exigua (Gyllenhall 1817), L. exstincta Olivier 1886, L. fissicollis Fairmaire 1891, L. flava Pic 1929, L. flavescens (Boisduval 1835), L. fukiensis Pic 1955, L. immarginata Bourgeois 1890, L. incerta (Boisduval 1835), L. infuscata (Erichson 1834), L. intricata (Walker 1858), L. japonica (Thunberg 1784), L. klapperichi Pic 1955, L. lata Olivier 1883, L. limbalis Fairmaire 1889, L. marginipennis (Boisduval 1835), L. melancholica Olivier 1913a, L. robusticeps Pic 1928, L. ruficollis (Boisduval 1835), L. spectralis Gorham 1880, L. stigmaticollis Fairmaire 1887, L. tincticollis Gorham 1895, L. trivandrensis Raj 1947, L. truncata Olivier 1886, L. vittata (Laporte 1833) Pteroptyx atripennis Pic 1923 and P. curticollis Pic 1923. While phylogenetic analyses indicate their distinctiveness, no further taxonomic action is taken with Luciola cruciata Motschulsky 1854 and L. owadai Sâtô et Kimura 1994 from Japan given the importance of the former as a national icon. Analyses also indicate that Lampyroidea syriaca Costa 1875 belongs in Luciola s. str. A much wider taxonomic analysis of this genus including all the species is necessary before any further action can be taken.
Earthworm specimens collected from various parts of Thailand were found to contain seven new species of the genus Metaphire Sims & Easton, 1972. These are M. songkhlaensis sp. n. in the octothecal pulauensis species group, M. trangensis sp. n. in the octothecal ignobilis species group, M. khaoluangensis sp. n. and M. khaochamao sp. n. in the sexthecal houlleti species group, M. doiphamon sp. n. in the sexthecal peguana species group, M. saxicalcis sp. n. in the quadrithecal planata species group, and the bithecal M. surinensis sp. n. Type material of some established species from Thailand or northern Malaysia was reinvestigated and illustrated to confirm the status of the new species and to facilitate species comparisons: M. pulauensis (Beddard, 1900), M. baruana (Stephenson, 1932), both with newly designated lectotypes, and M. planata (Gates, 1936), illustrated and redescribed.
Seven new Psechrus species are described from South East Asia: P. arietinus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. insulanus sp. nov.(♂, Thailand), P. ampullaceus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. omistes sp. nov.(♂, Indonesia, Sumatra), P. quasillus sp. nov.(♂♀, Malaysia, Borneo), P. huberi sp. nov.(♀, Philippines), and P. wade sp. nov.(♂, Philippines). For the following species, new records are listed and intraspecific variation is discussed and illustrated: P. libelti Kulczyński, 1908, P. norops Bayer, 2012, P. rani Wang & Yin, 2001, P. khammouan Jäger, 2007, P. luangprabang Jäger, 2007, P. jaegeri Bayer, 2012, P. obtectus Bayer, 2012, P. kenting Yoshida, 2009 and P. crepido Bayer, 2012, and Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891. The latter species is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. P. norops, P. libelti and an unidentified Psechrus species from Baluno, Mindanao are for the first time characterised and illustrated by their pre-epigynes and pre-vulvae.
Two new monotypic spittlebug genera and their type species in the family Machaerotidae, subfamily Enderleiniinae, are described and illustrated: Labramachaerota korupa gen. & sp. n. (with type locality in Cameroon) and Kyphomachaerota maaia gen. & sp. n. (with type locality in Sarawak, Malaysia).
Two new species of Pharta, P. sudmannorum sp. nov. (♂♀, Borneo) and P. koponeni sp. nov. (♂, Thailand) are described. Furthermore, Ibana senagang gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Malaysia is described based on its exceptional palp, which has a reduced, movable conductor and thick-long spines on the distal, ventral surface of the tibia, reminiscent of Epidius Thorell, 1877.
The crab spider genus Angaeus Thorell, 1881 currently contains 10 described species (Benjamin 2013; WSC 2017). All species of the genus are restricted to tropical Asia. The aim of this correspondence is to illustrate and describe a new species of the genus characterized by a number of features previously found in the genera Angaeus, Borboropactus Simon, 1884, Epidius Thorell, 1877 and Geraesta Simon, 1889. The most unusual feature is the elongated tibia of the male palp that was previously thought to be diagnostic of Epidius (Figs 1, 2, 8; character 1 in Benjamin 2011; Benjamin 2017). However, the new species lacks tibial macrosetae (Figs 1, 2, 8) and lacks a flexibly attached MA, both also being characteristics of Epidius (characters 2 and 18 in Benjamin 2011). Furthermore, this new species differs considerably in general appearance from all known species of Epidius.
The species of the genus Coeligetes Jacoby, 1884 distributed in Malaysia and Indonesia are revised, illustrated and keyed. New species, C. howardi sp. nov. from Borneo is described. New synonymy Coeligetes submetallica Jacoby, 1884 = C. wilcoxi Mohamedsaid, 1994 (syn. nov.) is proposed. New genus and species Coeligetoides trifurcatus gen. nov., sp. nov. (Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia and Thailand) is described, illustrated and compared with related genera.
Four new species of Grouvellinus Champion, 1923 with very long median pronotal carina are described from China: G. hongkongensis sp. nov. (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong), G. longiusculus sp. nov. (Jiangxi), G. mediocarinatus sp. nov. (Fujian, Guangdong), and G. robustus sp. nov. (Anhui). These species are obviously closely related to G. bishopi Jäch, 1984 described from Malaysia (Selangor). The latter is here recorded for the first time from Kedah and Perak (Malaysia). Habitus photographs, detailed line drawings of the male genitalia, as well as a key to the males of the species of Grouvellinus with very long median pronotal carina are provided.
Five new species of Notosacantha are described from Borneo (Sabah): N. flaviventris Borowiec and Takizawa sp. nov. (also described from Sumatra), N. flavosuturata Świętojańska and Takizawa sp. nov., N. minuta Świętojańska and Takizawa sp. nov., N. obscuricornis Borowiec and Takizawa sp. nov. and N. ovoidea Borowiec and Świętojańska sp. nov. New records for nine other species, a check list and key to Bornean Notosacantha are given. Myrsinaceae and Myristicaceae are new host plant families for tortoise beetles and Ardisia elliptica Thunb., Ardisia sp., Embelia sp., Gironiema sp. (all Myrsinaceae) and Knema sp. (Myristicaceae) are new host plants for Notosacantha.
The final instar larva of Acrogomphus jubilaris Lieftinck, 1964, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from four male and one female larvae collected in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The adults of A. jubilaris are very rarely encountered. The larvae, however, are surprisingly common in forest streams in Borneo. It is compared with A. malayanus Laidlaw, 1925 and A. walshae Lieftinck, 1935, and notes on behavior, distribution and habitat are included. A map including all known records of A. jubilaris is provided.
A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant, 1945 and Glenognatha maelfaiti Baert, 1987 with Glenognatha argyrostilba (Pickard-Cambridge, 1876) and Glenognatha centralis Chamberlin, 1925 with Glenognatha minuta Banks, 1898.