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  1. Peake NJ, Hobbs AJ, Pingguan-Murphy B, Salter DM, Berenbaum F, Chowdhury TT
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2014 Nov;22(11):1800-7.
    PMID: 25086404 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.07.018
    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been demonstrated in human and mouse models to play critical roles in cartilage homeostasis and endochondral bone formation. Indeed, targeted inactivation of the genes encoding CNP results in severe dwarfism and skeletal defects with a reduction in growth plate chondrocytes. Conversely, cartilage-specific overexpression of CNP was observed to rescue the phenotype of CNP deficient mice and significantly enhanced bone growth caused by growth plate expansion. In vitro studies reported that exogenous CNP influenced chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and matrix synthesis with the response dependent on CNP concentration. The chondroprotective effects were shown to be mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor (Npr)2 and enhanced synthesis of cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) production. Recent studies also showed certain homeostatic effects of CNP are mediated by the clearance inactivation receptor, Npr3, highlighting several mechanisms in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the CNP signalling systems are complex and influenced by multiple factors that will lead to altered signalling and tissue dysfunction. This review will discuss the differential role of CNP signalling in regulating cartilage and bone homeostasis and how the pathways are influenced by age, inflammation or sex. Evidence indicates that enhanced CNP signalling may prevent growth retardation and protect cartilage in patients with inflammatory joint disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/growth & development*
  2. Lee SY, Wee AS, Lim CK, Abbas AA, Selvaratnam L, Merican AM, et al.
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2013 Jun;24(6):1561-70.
    PMID: 23512151 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-013-4907-4
    This study aims to pre-assess the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of poly(vinyl alcohol)-carboxylmethyl-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) scaffold. PCP was lyophilised to create supermacroporous structures. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of PCP scaffolds for chondrocytes attachment and proliferation. The ultrastructural was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracellular matrix (ECM) formation was evaluated using collagen type-II staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen assays. Histological analysis was conducted on 3-week implanted Sprague-Dawley rats. The MTT, IHC, SEM and TEM analyses confirm that PCP scaffolds promoted cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. The chondrocyte-PCP constructs secreted GAG and collagen type-II, both increased significantly from day-14 to day-28 (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/growth & development*
  3. Shamsul BS, Chowdhury SR, Hamdan MY, Ruszymah BHI
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2019 05;149(5):641-649.
    PMID: 31417032 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_45_17
    Background & objectives: Seeding density is one of the major parameters affecting the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate different seeding densities of osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OACs) to obtain the highest quality cartilage.

    Methods: The OACs were expanded from passage 0 (P0) to P3, and cells in each passage were analyzed for gross morphology, growth rate, RNA expression and immunochemistry (IHC). The harvested OACs were assigned into two groups: low (1×10[7] cells/ml) and high (3×10[7] cells/ml) cell density. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs for each group were created using polymerised fibrin and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using chondrocyte growth medium. OAC constructs were analyzed with gross assessments and microscopic evaluation using standard histology, IHC and immunofluorescence staining, in addition to gene expression and biochemical analyses to evaluate tissue development.

    Results: Constructs with a high seeding density of 3×10[7] cells/ml were associated with better quality cartilage-like tissue than those seeded with 1×10[7] cells/ml based on overall tissue formation, cell association and extracellular matrix distribution. The chondrogenic properties of the constructs were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding aggrecan core protein and collagen type II.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results confirmed that cell density was a significant factor affecting cell behaviour and aggregate production, and this was important for establishing good quality cartilage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage/growth & development*
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