Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1425 in total

  1. Singh J, Che'Rus S, Chong S, Chong YK, Crofts N
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S99-103.
    PMID: 7857575
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Wang J, Sung V, Carew P, Burt RA, Liu M, Wang Y, et al.
    Acad Pediatr, 2019 07;19(5):504-514.
    PMID: 30872125 DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2019.01.010
    BACKGROUND: Better epidemiologic information on childhood hearing loss would inform research priorities and efforts to prevent its progression.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence and secular trends in children's hearing loss.

    DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Embase from January 1996 to August 2017.

    STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included epidemiologic studies in English reporting hearing loss prevalence.

    STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The modified Leboeuf-Yde and Lauritsen tool was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analyses combined study-specific estimates using random-effects models.

    PARTICIPANTS: Children 0 to 18 years of age.

    RESULTS: Among 88 eligible studies, 43.2% included audiometric measurement of speech frequencies. In meta-analyses, pooled prevalence estimates of slight or worse bilateral speech frequency losses >15 decibels hearing level (dB HL) were 13.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-17.0). Using progressively more stringent cutpoints, pooled prevalence estimates were 8.1% (95% CI, 1.3-19.8) with >20 dB HL, 2.2% (95% CI, 1.4-3.0) with >25 dB HL, 1.8% (95% CI, 0.4-4.1) with >30 dB HL, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.1-2.6) with >40 dB HL. Also, 8.9% (95% CI, 6.4-12.3) had likely sensorineural losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears, and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.5-2.1) had self-reported hearing loss. From 1990 to 2010, the prevalence of losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears rose substantially (all P for trend

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Kulanthayan S, Razak A, Schenk E
    Accid Anal Prev, 2010 Mar;42(2):509-14.
    PMID: 20159074 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.09.015
    The rapidly motorizing environment in Malaysia has made child occupant safety a current public health concern. The usage of child safety seats (CSS) is a widely regarded intervention to enhance child occupant safety, yet no study has been conducted on CSS in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the CSS usage rates in Malaysia and to assess driver characteristics that are associated with CSS usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Ong HC, White JC, Sinnathuray TA
    Acta Haematol., 1977;58(4):229-33.
    PMID: 410224 DOI: 10.1159/000207832
    A case of haemoglobin H (HbH) disease associated with pregnancy is presented and discussed in the light of reports in the literature. The variable symptomatology is commented upon, although mild to moderate chronic haemolytic anaemia seems to be a constant feature. The roles of folic acid supplements and of splenectomy; the avoidance of oxidant drugs, and the mode of inheritance in HbH disease are briefly commented upon. Available reports indicate that HbH disease probably has no adverse effect on pregnancy. However, the association of the two conditions is uncommon, and reports are too few, therefore, to allow definite conclusions on the outcome in all instances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Lie-Injo LE, Virik HK, Lim PW, Lie AK, Ganesan J
    Acta Haematol., 1977;58(3):152-60.
    PMID: 409030 DOI: 10.1159/000207822
    A study was carried out of 332 babies suffering from severe neonatal jaundice who were admitted to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia. Of the 332 neonates, 51 were premature and 281 were full-term babies, 178 (110 Chinese, 58 Malay, 9 Indian and 1 European-Pakistani) had bilirubin levels of 20 mg% or higher, requiring exchange blood transfusion. Of the Chinese neonates, 23 (20.9%) had G6PD deficiency, 9 (8.2%) had Hb Bart's and 2 (1.8%) had an abnormal haemoglobin, one Hb Q and one fetal variant. Among the Malay infants, 10 (17.2%) had G6PD deficiency, 7 (12.1%) had Hb Bart's and 10 (17.2%) had abnormal haemoglobins (four had Hb E trait, one had Hb K and Bart's in addition to Hb E, three had Hb CoSp with Hb Bart's, one had Hb Q and one Hb Tak). One of the nine Indian neonates had G6PD deficiency and one had Hb S trait. The one European-Pakistani baby was a carrier of Hb D Punjab. In addition to G6PD deficiency, abnormal haemoglobins seem to have contributed to the high incidence of severe neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. The mean activities of GP, GR and GR after stimulation with FAD were higher, while the mean activity of PK and mean level of reduced glutathione were lower than in normal cord bloods. The percent increase of GR after FAD stimulation was significantly lower; fewer in this group had increases above 20% than in normal cord blood. The possible significance of the findings is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Lie-Injo LE
    Acta Haematol., 1973;49(1):25-35.
    PMID: 4632449 DOI: 10.1159/000208382
    Newborns were examined for the presence of slow-moving haemoglobin components, tentatively designated X components and previously found in a group of Hb H disease in which invariably one of the parents of each patient had the same slow-moving Hb X components also. Structural studies showed that the abnormal haemoglobin in Chinese was identical with Hb Constant Spring, an c-chain variant. Newborns with Hb Bart’s and slow-moving X components invariably had one parent with the X components also. When the child grew older Hb Bart’s disappeared while the Hb X components remained in the blood. The homozygous state for the X components was found in a Malay boy through his newborn brother who had the X components in addition to Hb Bart’s and had both parents with the X components. One other Malay baby had the X components and Hb A2 Indonesia inherited from the parents. The present study of newborns also showed that Hb Bart’s can accompany different abnormalities of haemoglobin production, involving alpha-chains, beta-chains as well as gamm-chains. Its presence in cord blood is, therefore, not specific for alpha-thalassaemia
    Key Words: Haemoglobinopathies; Hb Bart’s; Slow-moving Hb X; Thalassaemia
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Nor Azlin MI, Nor NA, Sufian SS, Mustafa N, Jamil MA, Kamaruddin NA
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2007;86(4):407-8.
    PMID: 17486460
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Boo NY, Chee SC, Rohana J
    Acta Paediatr., 2002;91(6):674-9.
    PMID: 12162601
    A randomized controlled study was carried out on 96 preterm infants (< 37 wk) with birthweight less than 2000 g admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. The aim was to compare the weight gain between preterm infants exposed to 12 h cyclical lighting (intensity of light: 78.4 +/- 24.7 lux, mean +/- SD) and those exposed to a continuously dim environment (5.9 +/- 1.9 lux). The exclusion criteria were infants with major congenital malformations or who needed continuous lighting for treatment procedure and care. From day 7 of life until discharge, 50 infants were randomized to receive 12 h cyclical lighting and 46 infants to a continuously dim environment. There was no significant difference in the mean birthweight (12 h lighting vs continuously dim: 1482 vs 1465 g, p = 0.8), mean gestational age (31.6 vs 31.4 wk, p = 0.6), median duration of hospital stay (28.5 vs 28.5 d, p = 0.8), mean age to regain birthweight (13.0 vs 12.9 d, p = 0.3), mean weight gained by day 14 (27.6 vs 36.2 g, p = 1.0), median weight gain per day (11.9 vs 12.2 g, p = 0.9) or median body weight on discharge (1800 vs 1800 g, p = 0.4) between the two groups of infants.

    CONCLUSION: Exposing preterm infants to either 12 h cyglical lighting or continuously dim environment did not have any significant effect on their weight gain during the neonatal period.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Kamala F, Boo NY, Cheah FC, Birinder K
    Acta Paediatr., 2002;91(12):1350-6.
    PMID: 12578294
    AIM: To determine whether the addition of heparin to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid would prevent blockage of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates.

    METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 66 eligible neonates with PICCs inserted for the administration of TPN. Infants were randomized to receive TPN containing either 1 IU ml(-1) of heparin (n = 35) or no heparin (n = 31).

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of blocked catheters between the two groups of infants (heparin: 14.3%; no-heparin: 22.6%, p = 0.4). Although a higher percentage (62.9%) of infants in the heparin group received a complete course of TPN successfully via PICC than those in the no-heparin group (48.4%), the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3). There were no significant differences in the incidence of catheter-related sepsis, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, coagulopathy or intraventricular haemorrhage between the two groups.

    CONCLUSION: Addition of heparin to TPN fluid was not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of blocked PICCs. However, the sample size of this study was too small to exclude even rather marked differences between the groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Ong LC, Chandran V, Boo NY
    Acta Paediatr., 2001 Dec;90(12):1464-9.
    PMID: 11853347 DOI: 10.1080/08035250152708905
    A study was carried out to compare parenting stress between 116 mothers of very low birthweight (VLBW) children and 96 mothers of normal birthweight (NBW) children at 4 y of age, using the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with child-domain stress (CDS) and parent-domain stress (PDS). There was a significantly higher proportion (39.7%) of mothers of VLBW children with high CDS scores >90th percentile than mothers of NBW children (20.8%). No significant differences were observed for PDS scores. Lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and adverse child behaviour, as evidenced by higher Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores, were significantly associated with higher CDS scores (p < 0.001). Factors associated with higher PDS scores were higher CBCL scores (p < 0.001), mothers who were the primary caregivers (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.018) and lower level of maternal education (p = 0.048). These factors remained statistically significant even when physically and cognitively impaired children were excluded from the analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Specific child characteristics and the social environment appear to have a greater impact on parenting stress than the biological risk of VLBW birth per se.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Goh AY, Mok Q
    Acta Paediatr., 2004 Jan;93(1):47-52.
    PMID: 14989439
    AIM: To study the aetiology and clinical course of children with brainstem death in a paediatric intensive care unit (ICU) and to determine whether current the practices that are used to declare brainstem death conform to accepted criteria.
    METHODS: A retrospective review chart of all patients with brainstem death (n = 31) admitted to the paediatric ICU between January 1995 and December 1998 was drawn up.
    RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 51.9 +/- 54.5 mo with the main diagnoses being head trauma in 11 children, anoxic encephalopathy in 7, brain tumour in 5, drowning in 4, CNS haemorrhage in 3 and CNS infection in 1 child; 32.3% of the children were given pre-ICU admission cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The average time from insult to suspected brainstem death was 27 h and suspected brainstem death to confirmation was 25 h, with an average of 1.6 examinations performed. EEG was done in 14 patients, with electrocerebral silence in 8 after the first examination and in a further 5 after repeat testing. Cerebral blood-flow scans were done in 3 children and evoked potentials in 1 child.
    CONCLUSIONS: Trauma remains the most common primary diagnosis leading to brainstem death. Intensivists in this large hospital for children mainly conform to accepted guidelines for determination of brainstem death although there is a wider use of ancillary tests to aid diagnosis. The study also showed a low rate of < 10% of organ procurement for transplantation.

    Study site: Paediatric ICU, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Chan PW, Abdel-Latif ME
    Acta Paediatr., 2003 Apr;92(4):481-5.
    PMID: 12801117
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) chest infection is a common cause of hospitalization in the very young child. The aim of this study was to determine the direct cost of resource utilization in the treatment of children hospitalized with RSV chest infection and the potential cost-savings with passive immunization for high-risk infants. An audit of the hospital resource consumption and its costs was performed for 216 children aged < 24 mo admitted with RSV chest infection between 1995 and 1997. The cost-saving potential of passive immunization using monoclonal RSV antibodies during the RSV season was determined by assuming an 0.55 efficacy in hospitalization reduction when administered to "high-risk" infants according to the guidelines outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The hospital treatment cost of 1064 bed-days amounted to USD 64 277.70. Each child occupied a median of 4.0 bed-days at a median cost of USD 169.99 (IQ1 128.08, IQ3 248.47). Children, who were ex-premature or with an underlying illness were more likely to have a longer hospital stay, higher treatment costs and need for intensive care. Ten (42%) of 24 ex-premature infants fulfilled the recommended criteria for passive immunization. Its use resulted in an incremental cost of USD 31.39 to a potential cost saving of USD 0.91 per infant for each hospital day saved.

    CONCLUSION: Ex-prematurity and the presence of an underlying illness results in escalation of the direct treatment cost of RSV chest infection. Current guidelines for use of passive RSV immunization do not appear to be cost-effective if adopted for Malaysian infants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Low PS, Saha N, Tay JS, Hong S
    Acta Paediatr., 1996 Dec;85(12):1476-82.
    PMID: 9001661
    In multiracial Singapore, the prevalence of coronary artery disease is highest in ethnic Indian and lowest in ethnic Chinese populations. Since susceptibility to coronary artery disease is closely associated with plasma lipid traits, we studied the cord blood lipid and apolipoprotein profiles of the three ethnic groups in Singapore to determine if ethnic differences in lipid profile are present at birth. The high-risk lipid traits of high LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apo B, low HDL-cholesterol and apo A-I were found to be highest in ethnic Indian and lowest in ethnic Chinese populations. This difference was concordant with the relative coronary mortality rates for their respective adult populations in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Kanaheswari Y, Hamzaini AH, Wong SW, Zulfiqar A
    Acta Paediatr., 2008 Nov;97(11):1589-91.
    PMID: 18671691 DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00971.x
    Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized predominantly by cutaneous vascular malformations and pigmentary naevi. The most frequently reported form, Type II b, is associated with systemic involvement. Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) with concomitant glaucoma, Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS) and naevus of Ota have been frequently described, but there have only been two case reports with asymptomatic renal anomalies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Ma L, Liu C, Cheah I, Yeo KT, Chambers GM, Kamar AA, et al.
    Acta Paediatr., 2019 01;108(1):70-75.
    PMID: 30080290 DOI: 10.1111/apa.14533
    AIM: The attitudes of neonatologists towards the active management of extremely premature infants in a developing country like China are uncertain.

    METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to neonatologists from 16 provinces representing 59.6% (824.2 million) of the total population of China on October 2015 and December 2017.

    RESULTS: A total of 117 and 219 responses were received in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Compared to 2015, respondents in 2017 were more likely to resuscitate infants <25 weeks of gestation (86% vs. 72%; p < 0.05), but few would resuscitate infants ≤23 weeks of gestation in either epoch (10% vs. 6%). In both epochs, parents were responsible for >50% of the costs of intensive care, but in 2017, significantly fewer clinicians would cease intensive care (75% vs. 88%; p < 0.05) and more would request for economic aid (40% vs. 20%; p < 0.05) if parents could not afford to pay. Resource availability (e.g. ventilators) was not an important factor in either initiation or continuation of intensive care (~60% in both epochs).

    CONCLUSION: Cost is an important factor in the initiation and continuation of neonatal intensive care in a developing country like China. Such factors need to be taken into consideration when interpreting outcome data from these regions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Kaur P, Tan KK
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1994 Feb;36(1):95-6.
    PMID: 8165919
    A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Sinniah D, Chon FM, Arokiasamy J
    Acta Paediatr Scand, 1980 Jul;69(4):525-9.
    PMID: 7446101
    Concerned by the alarming decline in breast feeding in the urban and rural areas of Malaysia, we conducted a critical review of infant feeding practices among nursing personnel from representative centres using questionnaires. It was found that although 75% of mothers breast-fed their babies at birth only 19% did so at 2 months and 5% at 6 months respectively. Chinese mothers initiated breast feeding less frequently compared with Indian or Malay mothers. The prevalence of breast feeding was higher among lower category nurses, lower income groups and those from health centres. Decision for breast feeding was based in most instances on conviction derived from reading, lectures or advice from relatives. The vast majority of mothers listed "work' as the main reason for termination of breast feeding followed by "insufficient breast milk' and satisfactory past experience with bottle feeding. The ramifications of these findings and measures to improve the prevalence and duration of breast feeding are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Tan KL
    Acta Paediatr Scand, 1982 Jul;71(4):593-6.
    PMID: 7136674
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Oppenheimer SJ
    Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl, 1989;361:53-62.
    PMID: 2485586
    Iron deficiency is prevalent in childhood in the developed and developing countries. Programs of presumptive therapy, mass supplementation and food fortification have been introduced in many countries. The unresolved debate over the interaction of iron and infection in the clinical setting prompts re-evaluation of these practices. Situations of iron overload are associated with increased susceptibility to certain infections, although the exact mechanisms may vary with the main pathology. Iron treatment has been associated with acute exacerbations of infection, in particular malaria. In most instances parenteral iron was used. In the neonate parenteral iron is associated with serious E. coli sepsis. In one country, with endemic malaria, parenteral iron was associated with increased rates of malaria and increased morbidity due to respiratory disease in infants. In contrast in non-malarious countries studies of oral iron supplementation have if anything shown a reduction in infectious morbidity. Methodological problems in the latter reports indicate the need for further controlled prospective studies with accurate morbidity recording if informed recommendations are to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Nhidza AF, Naicker T, Stray-Pedersen B, Gumbo F, Chisango T, Sibanda E, et al.
    Afr J Reprod Health, 2018 Sep;22(3):43-50.
    PMID: 30381931 DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.5
    This study aimed at investigating the maternal characteristics that in turn influence the immunological status of infants in asymptomatic enteric pathogen carriers in mother baby pairs (MBPs) in a high HIV burdened population in Harare, Zimbabwe. BIOPLEX immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples from 39 MBPs for 27 cytokines and 6 immunoglobulins. The MBP were purposively selected based on HIV infection and Entamoeba histolytica carriage. Logistic regression was used to identify any link between maternal demographic and clinical data with infant cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. Maternal E. histolytica carriers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α cytokines (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79) and high levels of IgA immunoglobulin (OR: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.45-45.06). HIV infected mothers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IgG2 (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.00) and IgA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.90) immunoglobulins. Notably, it was highly likely to deliver infants with low IgG4 levels (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.02) for maternal mean age above 30.38 years (Standard deviation 6.09) though not significant (p=0.05). Maternal E. histolytica asymptomatic carriage, and HIV-infection status result in low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α and immunoglobulins IgG2, IgG4 and IgA on their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/blood; Infant, Newborn/immunology*
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