METHODS: Parents of children aged 3-5 years, from 14 countries (8 low- and middle-income countries, LMICs) completed surveys to assess changes in movement behaviours and how these changes were associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Surveys were completed in the 12 months up to March 2020 and again between May and June 2020 (at the height of restrictions). Physical activity (PA), sedentary screen time (SST) and sleep were assessed via parent survey. At Time 2, COVID-19 factors including level of restriction, environmental conditions, and parental stress were measured. Compliance with the World Health Organizations (WHO) Global guidelines for PA (180 min/day [≥60 min moderate- vigorous PA]), SST (≤1 h/day) and sleep (10-13 h/day) for children under 5 years of age, was determined.
RESULTS: Nine hundred- forty-eight parents completed the survey at both time points. Children from LMICs were more likely to meet the PA (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] = 2.0, 95%Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0,3.8) and SST (AdjOR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.2,3.9) guidelines than their high-income country (HIC) counterparts. Children who could go outside during COVID-19 were more likely to meet all WHO Global guidelines (AdjOR = 3.3, 95%CI 1.1,9.8) than those who were not. Children of parents with higher compared to lower stress were less likely to meet all three guidelines (AdjOR = 0.5, 95%CI 0.3,0.9).
CONCLUSION: PA and SST levels of children from LMICs have been less impacted by COVID-19 than in HICs. Ensuring children can access an outdoor space, and supporting parents' mental health are important prerequisites for enabling pre-schoolers to practice healthy movement behaviours and meet the Global guidelines.
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to familiarize physicians with the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted in January 2020 in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Henoch-Schönlein purpura" OR "IgA vasculitis" OR "anaphylactoid purpura". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews published within the past 10 years. Only papers published in the English literature were included in this review. This paper is based on, but not limited to, the search results.
RESULTS: Globally, the incidence of HSP is 10 to 20 cases per 100, 000 children per year. Approximately 90% of cases occur in children between 2 and 10 years of age, with a peak incidence at 4 to 7 years. The diagnosis should be based on the finding of palpable purpura in the presence of at least one of the following criteria, namely, diffuse abdominal pain, arthritis or arthralgia, renal involvement (hematuria and/or proteinuria), and a biopsy showing predominant IgA deposition. Most cases are self-limited. The average duration of the disease is 4 weeks. Long-term complications are rare and include persistent hypertension and end-stage kidney disease. Therapy consists of general and supportive measures as well as treatment of the sequelae of the vasculitis. Current evidence does not support the universal treatment of HSP patients with corticosteroids. Oral corticosteroids may be considered for HSP patients with severe gastrointestinal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
CONCLUSION: Most cases of HSP have an excellent outcome, with renal involvement being the most important prognostic factor in determining morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, early steroid treatment does not reduce the incidence and severity of nephropathy in children with HSP. In HSP children who have severe nephritis or renal involvement with proteinuria of greater than 3 months, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker should be considered in addition to corticosteroids to prevent and/or limit secondary glomerular injury.
Results: The CHVs' skills before training were far from adequate. Although widely varied, all trainees improved their abilities. Stacking analysis showed that the skills of all CHVs in measuring infants and toddlers increased by 2.68 and 3.34 logits (p < 0.01), respectively. Racking analysis showed a decrease in the perceived difficulty of all items by 2.61 and 3.07 logits for infant and toddler measurements, respectively (p < 0.01). The results of the racking analysis showed that the difficulty in measuring the anthropometrics of infants decreased more than that of toddlers.
Conclusions: CHVs' capacity to monitor child growth must be refreshed regularly. Standardized and proper training and assessment were developed to make CHVs reliable in taking anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers.