The literature on choice of endotracheal tube in paediatric anaesthesia is reviewed. 643 Malaysian patients were studied regarding size of tube required for endotracheal intubation in a 4-year period. In the 2-10 year age group (500 cases) it was found that the size required is 0.5 mm (internal diameter) less than that currently recommended by a formula based on experience with Western patients. A new formula is proposed for the Malaysian patient as a guide for anaesthetists under training in this part of the world.
This is a cohort study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether reassessment on the development of children with disability under rehabilitation should be done at three months interval or six months interval. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study was carried out for seven months from 1st August 2004 until 28th February 2005. A total of 168 disabled children followed up for six months were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was the tool used for analysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the mean total SGS score at six months interval but not at three months interval. The result suggests that reassessment on children with Down Syndrome, Autism, Cerebral Palsy, mental retardation and delayed speech under rehabilitation should be carried out every six months while children with gross developmental delay and slow learner might need a longer interval for reassessment.
The aim was to determine the differences in parents' perceptions of boys' and girls' body shapes and the explanations for the emphasis on body shape care of children. Subjects were low-income parents (n = 158) of preschoolers attending preschools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Parental perceptions of children's body shapes were assessed based on their rankings (scale of 1 to 7) of four attributes (ideal, healthy, fat and thin) for boy and girl figures. Parental responses to five questions on the importance of body shape were also obtained. Parental rankings of ideal and healthy body shapes were significantly lower for girls than boys (p < 0.001). However, mothers' and fathers' rankings of boys' and girls' body shapes were not significantly different. for both boys and girls, parental ratings for ideal body shape were significantly lower than for healthy body shape (p < 0.001). The majority of parents indicated that children's body shape is important for their future health, self enhancement, social interaction and career. With the increasing prevalence of body dissatisfaction among Malaysian children, these findings contribute to the understanding of parental roles in the development of body image and perhaps, in the etiology of body dissatisfaction among children.
Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) rarely presents with Luc's abscess. As a result of widespread usage of antimicrobial agents, Luc's abscess is hardly encountered in current clinical practice. Herein, we report a case of Luc's abscess as the first presenting symptom in a 5-year-old boy with underlying CC. Patient's clinical findings, radiological investigations and treatment were also discussed.
Mothers play important roles in their children's oral health. The aim of this study is to
determine the relationship between mothers’ sociodemographic backgrounds and their oral health
knowledge, attitude and practice of their preschool children. (Copied from article).
Parental involvement during early childhood development is important especially when the child has learning disabilities. This research aims to study the effectiveness of parental-based speech training programs for preschoolers with Speech Language Impairments (SLI) in a localized setting. The method used was qualitative and data was collected from selected preschoolers (N = 5) with different types of SLI symptoms. Each participant was assessed using a standardized assessment protocol to measure his/her language scale. The participants were given the intervention program by their own parents using the Hanen’s It Takes Two to Talk program. The progress of each subject and observations from these sessions were documented. The participants were assessed again once the intervention had been implemented. Substantial results were achieved when all subjects showed improvements in language comprehension and production skills. These results highlight the importance of parental involvement as first teachers in the early intervention of children with SLI.
This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of false memory in preschool children aged 3 to 6 years old. Three experiments were conducted using the traditional measurements of memory: free recall (experiment 1), cued recall (experiment 2) and recognition (experiment 3). A total of 24 children who were divided into three groups of 8, participated in the study. Result of experiment 1 showed a significant effect of categorical information on false memory. Preschool children were more likely to be influenced by false memory when the information was carried object category. Results if experiment 2 showed a significant difference in types of questions. More false memories were created for misleading questions than leading questions. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the preschool children were more likely to choose distracter pictures that target pictures. Within the distracter pictures, participants chose more false distracters than leading distracters. Implication of the findings suggests a strong evidence for the occurence of false memory in preschool children. The size of false memory effect was determined by the type of information presented to the children.
We describe a 5 1/2 year old boy who was diagnosed with mild autosomal recessive osteopetrosis based on the presence of bony sclerosis, extramedullary haematopoeisis, leukoerythroblastosis and visual impairment who had an allogeneic bone marrow transplant from a matched sibling donor. Conditioning regime was busulphan 16 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg. Apart from transient hypercalcaemia, there were no major post transplant complications. Four years post transplant, the extramedullary haematopoeisis has resolved completely with normal blood counts. Apart from a fracture after a trivial fall two months after transplant, he has not suffered any fracture related limb deformities.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease commonly found among the Caucasian population. The availability of sweat test and with increasing experience have made it possible to diagnose more cases of CF. Our first case of CF was diagnosed 16 years ago and to date we have managed sixteen cases of CF. Sixteen children were diagnosed with CF in our units at the Paediatric Institute and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). They were referred with either one or all of the following symptoms: i) recurrent pneumonia, ii) bronchiectasis, iii) failure to thrive, iii) malabsorption or iv) history of meconium ileus obstruction during the neonatal period. When the clinical features suggested strongly of CF, sweat tests will be performed in duplicates and considered positive when the sweat chloride or sweat sodium was more than 60 mmol/l for both results. Seventy- two hours fecal fat excretion or stool for fat globule was performed to document malabsorption. From the year 1987 to 2003, 16 patients were confirmed to have cystic fibrosis in Malaysia by positive sweat tests. Thirteen patients were diagnosed in Paediatric Institute while the remaining three were diagnosed in UMMC. On follow-up two patients died due to severe bronchopneumonia at the age of two years old. Although once considered rare, CF should now be considered in any children with clinical presentations of recurrent chest infections, bronchiectasis, in the presence or absence of malabsoption stmptoms and in neonates with meconium ileus obstruction.
We present a very rare case of jejunal web discovered after a toddler presented with foreign bodies entrapment, following incidental ingestion. This is perhaps the first case reported in the English publication. Expectant management with spontaneous passage of foreign bodies failed. Serial abdominal radiographs failed to determine the site of the foreign bodies accurately. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful. Surgical removal was warranted with unexpected intra-operative finding of a jejunal web with foreign body entrapment. Although rare, a congenital intestinal web must be considered in a child presents with failure of expectant management following foreign body ingestion as surgical intervention is necessary.
Our aim was to examine the relations between type and site of the fracture, age of the patient, and the management and outcomes, among children diagnosed with orbital fractures at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, during a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012. The records of 41 children whose ages ranged from 8 months to 15 years were analysed. There was a male predominance (n=33). Two most common fractures were orbital floor and multiwalled fractures, with medial wall as the second most common site. The most common cause of injury was sport, more often with increasing age. In contrast, falls were more common among young children. Fractures of the orbital roof were more common among young children, all of ours being in children 10 years old or less. Lateral wall fractures were also more common among young children and declined in frequency with increasing age. In contrast, fractures of the orbital floor and medial wall can occur at any age, though those of the medial wall were more common among older children. As children grow their behaviour and activities change, and the mechanism by which they become injured also changes. Growth and development of the craniofacial skeleton lead to differences in the patterns of fractures with age. Fractures of the orbital roof and lateral wall are more common among young children, while those of the orbital floor and medial wall can occur at any age.
Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disease primarily affects the bone. More than 50 percent of the disease occurs between the age of 1 and 15. We reported a case of a 2 year old boy who presented with a gluteal mass. Radiographic imaging showed an osteolytic lesion suspicious of malignancy. However, the histological diagnosis was Langerhans cell histiocytosis.