Aedes mosquitoes can efficiently transmit many pathogenic arboviruses, placing a great burden on public health worldwide. In addition, they also carry a number of insect-specific viruses (ISVs), and it was recently suggested that some of these ISVs might form a stable species-specific "core virome" in mosquito populations. However, little is known about such a core virome in laboratory colonies and if it is present across different developmental stages. In this study, we compared the viromes in eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes collected from a lab colony and compared each to the virome of different developmental stages collected in the field. The virome in lab-derived A. albopictus was very stable across all stages, consistent with a vertical transmission route of these viruses, and formed a possible "vertically transmitted core virome." The different stages of field-collected A. albopictus mosquitoes also contained this stable vertically transmitted core virome, as well as another set of viruses (e.g., viruses distantly related to Guadeloupe mosquito virus, Hubei virga-like virus 2, and Sarawak virus) shared by mosquitoes across different stages, which might represent an "environment-derived core virome." To further study this core set of ISVs, we screened 48 publicly available SRA viral metagenomic data sets of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes, showing that some of the identified ISVs were identified in the majority of SRAs and providing further evidence supporting the core-virome concept.IMPORTANCE Our study revealed that the virome was very stable across all developmental stages of both lab-derived and field-collected Aedes albopictus The data representing the core virome in lab A. albopictus proved the vertical transmission route of these viruses, forming a "vertically transmitted core virome." Field mosquitoes also contained this stable vertically transmitted core virome as well as additional viruses, which probably represented "environment-derived core virome" and which therefore were less stable over time and geography. By further screening publicly available SRA viral metagenomic data sets from mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes, some of the identified core ISVs were shown to be present in the majority of SRAs, such as Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus and Guadeloupe mosquito virus. How these core ISVs influence the biology of the mosquito host and arbovirus infection and evolution deserves to be further explored.
Breeding and larval performance of novel hybrids from reciprocal crosses of Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) were investigated in this study. Spawning was by hormonal injection of brood fish, artificial fertilization, and incubation in triplicate aquarium tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3) with continuous aeration. Reciprocal crosses (♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus) had lower hatchability (≤50%) than their pure siblings (≥75%). Fish from all crosses survived until the juvenile stage but survival at 35 days post hatching (dph) was higher for pure C. gariepinus sib. ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus was observed to be less resistant to degradation of water quality than the other crosses, however it had higher body weight compared with the other crosses that showed similar performance. Morphological comparison of surviving juvenile at 35 dph, showed that all ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus and 13% of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus exhibited the very same morphology as that of their maternal parent species, while the other portion of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus cross exhibited morphological traits that were intermediate between those of both parent species. This study been the first successful attempt to hybridize both species and therefore, laid the groundwork for further studies on the aquaculture potentials of the novel hybrids.
The final stadium larva of Onychargia atrocyana Selys, 1865, is described and illustrated based on two female specimens collected at Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. The larvae were identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens from Gunung Mulu, Bintulu and Kuching in Sarawak and from Pahang state in West Malaysia. The specimens presented close matches with all adults in this gene. As O. atrocyana is a taxonomically isolated species with no close congeners in Borneo the determination is beyond doubt. O. atrocyana is the only member of the Onychargiinae for which the larva is known. It is compared with the known larvae of other platycnemidid subfamilies, and the possible significance of larval morphology in higher classification of the group is discussed.
Simulium (Nevermannia) ledangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and mature larvae from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia, and is characterized by the pupa having a very long stalk of the ventral paired gill filaments, which is almost five times longer than the interspiracular trunk and female tergites of segments 2 and 5 to 7 shiny. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from three known species of the S. feuerborni species-group from Malaysia.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hiroyukii is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the darkened fore coxae and the pupal gill with eight long filaments, of which middle and dorsal triplets have elongated primary and secondary stalks, respectively.
Four new species of black flies are described, and three others are reported as newly recorded, based on adults reared from pupae, pupae and larvae collected in and near Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. New species include Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hongthaii sp. nov., S. (G.) tamdaoense sp. nov. (both species placed in the asakoae species-group), S. (Simulium) taythienense sp. nov. and S. (S.) xuandai sp. nov. (the two latter species placed in the striatum species-group). Newly recorded species are S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim, S. (Nevermannia) aureohirtum Brunetti and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies. These discoveries increase the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam from 21 to 28.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
Three new species of black flies, Simulium (Nevermannia) langbiangense, S. (N.) phami, and S. (N.) bachmaense, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Vietnam. All three species are assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia). Simulium (N.) langbiangense sp. nov. is characterized by the female sensory vesicle with a large opening, and a short common basal stalk of the six pupal gill filaments, S. (N.) phami sp. nov. is most striking in having the pupal gill with five filaments, a character not reported in species of the S. feuerborni species-group, and S. (N.) bachmaense sp. nov. is characterized by the female genital fork with a triangular lobe-like projection pointed posteromedially on each arm, and the small larval postgenal cleft. This represents the first record of the S. feuerborni species-group from Vietnam.
The megophryid frogs Leptobrachella brevicrus, Leptolalax dringi and Megophrys dringi are species exclusively known from highly localised areas in isolated mountain ranges on Borneo. The tadpoles and adults in this study were collected at the shared type locality for the three species in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo). The species identities of larvae were determined via comparison to syntopic adults using DNA barcoding techniques based on partial 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences. The genetic data supported the status of the three taxa as valid species. Descriptions of colouration in life and after preservation, external morphological features, morphometric measurements and ecological notes in comparison to congeneric species are supplied. The tadpoles of L. brevicrus and L. dringi show similar adaptations to a fossorial lifestyle. These include an elongated, vermiform body, a relatively long tail and small eyes. Both were found in the gravel beds of a small mountain stream. In contrast, the larvae of M. dringi are adapted to occupying and feeding at the surface of pools within the stream.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.
This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are presented for the males and females. Certain females are characterised by the nature of their bursa plates. Australoluciola gen. nov. is proposed for ten species from Australia and New Guinea, seven transferred from Luciola and three new, with species keyed from males, all of which have an entire light organ in ventrite 7. Aus. anthracina (Olivier), Aus. aspera (Olivier), Aus. australis (F.), Aus. flavicollis (MacLeay), Aus. foveicollis (Olivier), Aus. nigra (Olivier) and Aus. orapallida (Ballantyne) are transferred from Luciola with males assigned to Aus. aspera(Olivier), and a lectotype designated for Luciola foveicollis Olivier; Aus. baduria sp. nov., Aus. fuscamagna sp. nov.,Aus. fuscaparva sp. nov., Aus. japenensis sp. nov. and Aus. pharusaurea sp. nov. are described. Females of Aus. australis and Aus. flavicollis have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The bent-winged fireflies of New Guinea and Australia are removed from Pteroptyx Olivier and assigned to Medeopteryx gen. nov. and Trisinuata gen. nov. Medeopteryx gen. nov. is erected for 17 species including two new; all have ventrite 7 with an entire light organ, trisinuate posterior margin and short posterolateral projections; the following 14 species in which males have deflexed elytral apices are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier: M. amilae (Satô), M. antennata (Olivier), M. corusca (Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), M. elucens (Ballantyne), M. flagrans (Ballantyne), M. fulminea (Ballantyne), M. hanedai (Ballantyne), M. platygaster (Lea), M. similisantennata(Ballantyne), M. sublustris (Ballantyne), M. tarsalis (Olivier), and M. torricelliensis (Ballantyne). M. clipeata sp. nov. is described. Two species without deflexed elytral apices include M. pupilla (Olivier) which is transferred from Luciola, and M. similispupillae sp. nov. A Lectotype is designated for Luciola pupilla (Olivier). Females of M. corusca(Ballantyne), M. cribellata (Olivier), M. effulgens (Ballantyne), and M. similispupillae sp. nov. have two pairs of wide bursa plates. The second genus including species in which the males have deflexed elytral apices is Trisinuata gen. nov., where all males have light organ in ventrite 7 bipartite and posterolateral projections expanded; it is proposed for eight New Guinean species: T. microthorax (Olivier), T. minor (Ballantyne), T. papuae (McDermott) and T. similispapuae(Ballantyne) are transferred from Pteroptyx Olivier, T. papuana (Olivier) previously known only from a female, has males associated and is transferred from Luciola, and T. caudabifurca sp. nov., T. dimidiata sp. nov. and T. apicula sp. nov. are described. Females of T. similispapuae (Ballantyne) have two pairs of wide bursa plates. Luciola s. str. is defined by scoring the type species L. italica (L), Bourgeoisia Olivier and Lampyroidea (based on its type species syriaca Costa) both of which are submerged into Luciola; Luciola s. str is addressed here from four Pacific Island species: L. hypocrita Olivier, L. antipodum Bourgeois both transferred from Bourgeoisia; L. aquilaclarasp. nov. and L. oculofissa sp. nov. are described. L. oculofissa sp. nov. is the only Luciolinae male known to lack light organs. Females of L. italica and L. hypocrita lack bursa plates.Pacifica gen. nov. is proposed for five species from the Solomon Islands transferred from Pygatyphella(Ballantyne), and which the phylogenetic analysis shows to be distinctive viz. P. limbatifusca (Ballantyne), P. limbatipennis (Pic), P. plagiata (Blanchard), P. russellia (Ballantyne), and P. salomonis (Olivier). A monotypic genus Poluninius gen. nov. is proposed for Pol. selangoriensis sp. nov. from Selangor, Malaysia. The genera Colophotia, Pteroptyx, Pyrophanes, and Pygoluciola are treated in an abbreviated fashion with generic diagnoses, lists of, and keys to, species. Pteroptyx bearni Olivier and P. tener Olivier are characterised from type specimens and female bursae and P. similis Ballantyne is synonymised with P. bearni. Luciola semilimbata Olivier is transferred to Pyrophanes, and Luciola cowleyi Blackburn to Pygoluciola. The following species are treated as species incertae sedis: L. melancholica Olivier, L. ruficollis Guérin-Ménéville. The New Guinean records of Luciola tenuicornis Olivier, L. timida Olivier and Photinus cinctellus Motschulsky are suspect. Fifteen of the species treated here are recognised by flashing patterns. The functions of the terminal abdominal modifications, origins of the Australopacific firefly fauna, and use of female and larval characters in interpretations of relationships are considered.
Simulium (Nevermannia) khunklangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This new species is placed in the vernum species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia and is similar to S. (N.) chomthongense Takaoka & Srisuka described from Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand, but is distinguished in the male by the number of enlarged upper-eye facets and the relative width of the hind basitarsus against the hind tibia and femur, and in the pupa by the short common basal stalk of the gill and the cocoon with an anterodorsal bulge or a short anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from five other known species of the vernum species-group, which share an accessory sclerite on the larval abdomen, a rare characteristics in this species-group.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Here we provide an illustrated key to lepidopteran larvae that occur as pests on rice (Oryza) in Malaysia. We are unaware of a published key for this region for this vital commercial crop, and hence provide one based on easily observable features that could be useful for identification, early detection, and pest management by specialists and non-specialists alike (see discussion in Mukerji & Singh 1951, Sri et al. 2010, Timm et al. 2007, Tillmon et al. 2000, Wagener et al. 2004).
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
The final instar larva of Acrogomphus jubilaris Lieftinck, 1964, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from four male and one female larvae collected in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The adults of A. jubilaris are very rarely encountered. The larvae, however, are surprisingly common in forest streams in Borneo. It is compared with A. malayanus Laidlaw, 1925 and A. walshae Lieftinck, 1935, and notes on behavior, distribution and habitat are included. A map including all known records of A. jubilaris is provided.
Platybaetis bishopi Müller-Liebenau, 1980 was originally described from Malaysia only at the larval stage. We provide the first description of the imaginal stage of P. bishopi based on materials from Thailand. The imago of this species can be separated from the known species by coloration of abdominal terga and coloration of wings. A new species, Platybaetis nayokensis sp. nov., is described based on male and female imagos and larvae from Thailand. The larva of this species is mainly distinguished by medium acute spines on the posterior margin of the abdominal terga and two apical setae on the glossa, which seem to be shorter than in other species. The imago can be separated by the abdominal color pattern. The larva of this genus is adapted to live on wet rocks projecting out of water; it prefers large stones near small waterfalls or areas between two large rocks in running water.
A new genus of Winnertziini (Cecidomyiidae: Winnertziinae) named Bernadottea gen. nov. is introduced to absorb four new species from various different parts of the Old World: B. natalensis sp. nov. from South Africa, B. honshuensis sp. nov. from Japan, and B. pahangensis sp. nov. and B. selangorensis sp. nov. from Malaysia. Bernadottea are distinguished from previously known Winnertziini by the unusually complex genitalia of males, and from most members of this tribe by the absence of the fourth medial vein (M4). Another feature of Bernadottea is their rare occurrence in samples of Winnertziini taken by hand or by traps, a circumstance presumably expressing their scarcity in nature, at least at ground level. The new taxa are described based on the morphology of males, while females and larvae remain unknown.
A new black fly species, Simulium taichungense, is described on the basis of one female, one male and two pupal exuviae from Taiwan. This new species is placed in the S. crocinum species-group of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae). It is characterized by the pupal gill with six unpigmented short filaments and pupal abdomen with distinct spine-combs on the dorsal surface of segments 7-9, by which it is easily distinguished from most species in the S. crocinum species-group including two species from Taiwan: Simulium serenum Huang Takaoka and S. ufengense Takaoka. It is the third species of the S. crocinum species-group from Taiwan. In addition, the male of S. serenum is described for the first time, and intraspecific variations in a few features of the male of S. chungi Takaoka Huang of the S. chungi species-group are noted.