METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 859 community-dwelling patients aged ≥70 years treated at 15 primary care practices. Patients were asked if they had experienced any of a list of 74 symptoms classified by physiologic system in the previous 6 months and if (1) they believed the symptom to be related to their medication, (2) the symptom had bothered them, (3) they had discussed it with their family physician, and (4) they required hospital care due to the symptom. Self-reported symptoms were independently reviewed by 2 clinicians who determined the likelihood that the symptom was an ADE. Family physician medical records were also reviewed for any report of an ADE.
RESULTS: The ADE instrument had an accuracy of 75% (95% CI, 77%-79%), a sensitivity of 29% (95% CI, 27%-31%), and a specificity of 93% (95% CI, 92%-94%). Older people who reported a symptom had an increased likelihood of an ADE (positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 4.22; 95% CI, 3.78-4.72). Antithrombotic agents were the drugs most commonly associated with ADEs. Patients were most bothered by muscle pain or weakness (75%), dizziness or lightheadedness (61%), cough (53%), and unsteadiness while standing (52%). On average, patients reported 39% of ADEs to their physician. Twenty-six (3%) patients attended a hospital outpatient clinic, and 32 (4%) attended an emergency department due to ADEs.
CONCLUSION: Older community-dwelling patients were often not correct in recognizing ADEs. The ADE instrument demonstrated good predictive value and could be used to differentiate between symptoms of ADEs and chronic disease in the community setting.
METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.
RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.
METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with the intervention design team, healthcare providers and patients in two rounds during the implementation period. A total of 121 individuals in the two rounds, split into different groups, where some of the participants of the FGD were also interviewed individually. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis, with codes being organised into larger themes.
RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the data were around the process of FHT implementation and the advantages of the FHT, which included continuity of health care and improved quality of care. Patients and health care providers were receptive to the FHT concept, and took the effort to adapt the concept in the local settings.
CONCLUSIONS: The FHT concept implemented at 20 public primary health clinics has benefits appreciated by health care providers and patients. Addressing the viable shortcomings would better prepare the current primary healthcare system to scale up the FHT concept nationwide and enhance its feasibility and sustainability.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia ( NMRR-17-295-34711 ).
SETTING: Seven core clinical disciplines from seven tertiary public hospitals in Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Study was conducted among 330 randomly-sampled doctors. Response rate was 80.61% (n=266).
RESULTS: The mean score of acute fatigue, chronic fatigue and intershift recovery were 68.51 (SD=16.549), 54.60 (SD=21.259) and 37.29 (SD=19.540), respectively. All these scores were out of 100 points each. Acute and chronic fatigue were correlated (r=0.663), and both were negatively correlated with intershift recovery (r=-0.704 and r=-0.670, respectively). Among the work-related activities done during non-work time, work-related ruminations dominated both the more frequent activities and the association with poorer fatigue and recovery outcomes. Rumination on being scolded/violated was found to be positively associated with both acute fatigue (adjusted regression coefficient (Adj.b)=2.190, 95% CI=1.139 to 3.240) and chronic fatigue (Adj.b=5.089, 95% CI=3.876 to 6.303), and negatively associated with recovery (Adj.b=-3.316, 95% CI=-4.516 to -2.117). Doing work task at workplace or attending extra work-related activities such as locum and attending training were found to have negative associations with fatigue and positive associations with recovery. Nevertheless, doing work-related activities at home was positively associated with acute fatigue. In terms of communication, it was found that face-to-face conversation with partner did associate with higher recovery but virtual conversation with partner associated with higher acute fatigue and lower recovery.
CONCLUSIONS: Work-related ruminations during non-work time were common and associated with poor fatigue and recovery outcomes while overt work activities done at workplace during non-work time were associated with better fatigue and recovery levels. There is a need for future studies with design that allow causal inference to address these relationships.