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  1. Martin A, Moore C, Mallon PW, Hoy J, Emery S, Belloso W, et al.
    AIDS, 2013 Sep 24;27(15):2403-11.
    PMID: 23921615 DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432534.47217.b4
    To compare changes over 48 weeks in bone mineral density (BMD) between participants randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) or LPV/r + 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as second line therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Tee KK, Pon CK, Kamarulzaman A, Ng KP
    AIDS, 2005 Jan 28;19(2):119-26.
    PMID: 15668536
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and to screen for the emergence of intersubtype recombinants in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A molecular epidemiology study was conducted among HIV-1 seropositive patients attending the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) from July 2003 to June 2004.

    METHODS: Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) gene sequences were derived from drug resistance genotyping assay of 100 newly diagnosed or antiretroviral-naive patients. These were phylogenetically analysed to determine the subtypes and recombination breakpoint analyses were performed on intersubtype recombinants to estimate the recombination breakpoint(s).

    RESULTS: CRF01_AE predominated in Kuala Lumpur with 65% in both PR and RT genes. B subtype was detected at 14% and 12% in PR and RT genes, respectively. C subtype was present at 1% in both genes. Overall, the concordance of PR and RT genes in discriminating subtypes/circulating recombinant forms (CRF) was high at 96%. In this study, novel CRF01_AE/B intersubtype recombinants were detected at high prevalence (22%), including those isolates with subtype discordance. Thai variants of CRF01_AE and B subtype were involved in the genesis of these unique recombinant forms (URF). Interestingly, 19 CRF01_AE/B intersubtype recombinant isolates shared similar recombination breakpoints in both PR and RT genes. Several distinct URF were also identified.

    CONCLUSION: PR and RT genes can be utilized for subtype/CRF assessment with high degree of agreement, allowing concurrent surveillance of circulating HIV-1 subtypes with antiretroviral drug resistance genotyping tests. The emergence of highly identical CRF01_AE/B intersubtype recombinants suggests the possibility of the appearance of a new circulating recombinant form in Kuala Lumpur.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. Aceijas C, Stimson GV, Hickman M, Rhodes T, United Nations Reference Group on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among IDU in Developing and Transitional Countries
    AIDS, 2004 Nov 19;18(17):2295-303.
    PMID: 15577542
    OBJECTIVE: To provide global estimates of the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) and HIV prevalence among IDU, in particular to provide estimates for developing and transitional countries.

    METHODS: Collation and review of existing estimates of IDU prevalence and HIV prevalence from published and unpublished documents for the period 1998-2003. The strength of evidence for the information was assessed based on the source and type of study.

    RESULTS: Estimates of IDU prevalence were available for 130 countries. The number of IDU worldwide was estimated as approximately 13.2 million. Over ten million (78%) live in developing and transitional countries (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 3.1 million; South and South-east Asia, 3.3 million; East-Asia and Pacific, 2.3 million). Estimates of HIV prevalence were available for 78 countries. HIV prevalence among IDU of over 20% was reported for at least one site in 25 countries and territories: Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Libya, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, USA and Canada.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings update previous assessments of the number of countries with IDU and HIV-infected IDU, and the previous quantitative global estimates of the prevalence of IDU. However, gaps remain in the information and the strength of the evidence often was weak.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. Abdul Aziz SA, Mcstea M, Ahmad Bashah NS, Chong ML, Ponnampalavanar S, Syed Omar SF, et al.
    AIDS, 2018 05 15;32(8):1025-1034.
    PMID: 29547442 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001798
    OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes.

    DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging.

    METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to explore risk factors and health-related outcomes associated with sarcopenia among HIV-infected individuals.

    RESULTS: We recruited 315 HIV-infected individuals aged at least 25 years with at least 1-year history of undetectable viral load on treatment (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml). Percentage of sarcopenia in 315 HIV-infected was 8%. Subsequently, 153 of the 315 were paired with age, sex and ethnically matched HIV-uninfected. The percentage of sarcopenia in the HIV-infected (n = 153) compared with uninfected (n = 153) were 10 vs. 6% (P = 0.193) respectively, whereas of those at least 50 years of age among them were 17% vs. 4% (P = 0.049), respectively. Associated risk factors among the HIV-infected include education level, employment status, BMI, baseline CD4 cell count, duration on NRTIs and GGT levels. Identified negative outcomes include mortality risk scores [5.42; 95% CI 1.46-9.37; P = 0.007) and functional disability (3.95; 95% CI 1.57-9.97; P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is more prevalent in HIV-infected at least 50 years old compared with matched controls. Our findings highlight associations between sarcopenia with loss of independence and greater healthcare burden among treated HIV-infected individuals necessitating early recognition and intervention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Bazazi AR, Crawford F, Zelenev A, Heimer R, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2015 Dec;19(12):2347-57.
    PMID: 26358544 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1191-y
    The HIV epidemic in Malaysia is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID). Accurate estimates of HIV prevalence are critical for developing appropriate treatment and prevention interventions for PWID in Malaysia. In 2010, 461 PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed rapid HIV testing and behavioral assessments. Estimates of HIV prevalence were computed for each of the three recruitment sites and the overall sample. HIV prevalence was 15.8 % (95 % CI 12.5-19.2 %) overall but varied widely by location: 37.0 % (28.6-45.4 %) in Kampung Baru, 10.3 % (5.0-15.6 %) in Kajang, and 6.3 % (3.0-9.5 %) in Shah Alam. Recruitment extended to locations far from initial interview sites but was concentrated around discrete geographic regions. We document the high prevalence of HIV among PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur. Sustained support for community surveillance and HIV prevention interventions is needed to stem the HIV epidemic among PWID in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Mohd Nasarruddin A, Wan Mohammad WM, Nik Hussain NH, Ali SH, Zubir HM
    AIDS Care, 2015;27(3):301-6.
    PMID: 25471247 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.985182
    Kelantan, a northeastern state in Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the states that has been acutely hit by injecting drug user (IDU)-driven HIV epidemic, in addition to having a high number of infected women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk factors, risk perception, and adoption of preventive behaviors among female partners of IDUs in Kelantan. Out of 101 women, the majority of them are from low socioeconomic background and have no other risk factors besides heterosexual HIV transmission from their male IDU partners. Although 45.5% have not been tested for HIV and more than half (53.5%) of them did not use condoms during sexual intercourse, only 44.6% of the women perceived themselves to be at risk of being infected with HIV. Most of the women (86.1%) were willing to undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Female partners of IDUs continue to be vulnerable to HIV due to having sexual contact with IDUs, and also due to their socioeconomic position in the community. To prevent HIV transmission among female partners of IDUs, consolidating HIV prevention efforts from multiple approaches is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Brown T
    AIDS Care, 1997 Feb;9(1):43-9.
    PMID: 9155914
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Navaratnam V
    AIDS Care, 2009 Aug;21(8):984-91.
    PMID: 20024754 DOI: 10.1080/09540120802657530
    Despite the growing HIV threat among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Malaysia, there is a dearth of information on their HIV risk behaviour. This study focused on identifying specific risk behaviours that distinguished HIV positive IDUs from those who were not. For the first time, data on IDUs not in treatment were obtained through a cross-sectional survey of 526 subjects recruited from five selected cities across peninsular Malaysia. A structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews were utilised to collect detailed information on their drug use practices and sexual behaviours. On-site serological testing determined their HIV and hepatitis C status. The findings indicated that ethnic Malays, who are also Muslims, form the majority of IDUs not in treatment. Bivariate analysis identified six risk factors associated with HIV seropositivity: being 44 years or younger; not holding a regular job; initiating drug use at age 23 or younger; being a morphine user; sharing injecting equipment and having multiple-sex partners. However, only the last two remained significant in multivariate analysis. That sharing contaminated injecting equipment is a significant risk factor strongly justifies the widening of the pilot needle and syringe exchange programme initiated hesitantly in late 2005 as a reaction to the worsening HIV/AIDS situation. Condom use, though not independently significant, remains important because consistent and wider use could neutralise the second risk factor--having multiple-sex partners. The finding that injecting drug use is increasingly occurring in groups underscores the need for outreach programmes that emphasise safe injecting practices in group settings. In addition, counsellors should endeavour to convince drug users to enter treatment since being in treatment appears to reduce risk behaviours. Finally, conservative Muslim unease about harm reduction must be assuaged quickly since Malay Muslims form the majority of IDUs not in treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Huang M, Hussein H
    AIDS Educ Prev, 2004 Jun;16(3 Suppl A):100-9.
    PMID: 15262569
    Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Jeong SJ, Italiano C, Chaiwarith R, Ng OT, Vanar S, Jiamsakul A, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 Mar;32(3):255-61.
    PMID: 26414065 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0058
    Many HIV-infected individuals do not enter health care until late in the infection course. Despite encouraging earlier testing, this situation has continued for several years. We investigated the prevalence of late presenters and factors associated with late presentation among HIV-infected patients in an Asian regional cohort. This cohort study included HIV-infected patients with their first positive HIV test during 2003-2012 and CD4 count and clinical status data within 3 months of that test. Factors associated with late presentation into care (CD4 count <200 cells/μl or an AIDS-defining event within ±3 months of first positive HIV test) were analyzed in a random effects logistic regression model. Among 3,744 patients, 2,681 (72%) were late presenters. In the multivariable model, older patients were more likely to be late presenters than younger (≤30 years) patients [31-40, 41-50, and ≥51 years: odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.88; OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.58-2.56; and OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.23-2.31, respectively; all p ≤ 0.001]. Injecting drug users (IDU) were more likely (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27, p < 0.001) and those with homosexual HIV exposure were less likely (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58, p < 0.001) to be late presenters compared to those with heterosexual HIV exposure. Females were less likely to be late presenters (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.53, p < 0.001). The year of first positive HIV test was not associated with late presentation. Efforts to reduce the patients who first seek HIV care at the late stage are needed. The identified risk factors associated with late presentation should be utilized in formulating targeted public health intervention to improve earlier entry into HIV care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Tee KK, Kamarulzaman A, Ng KP
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2006 Feb;22(2):121-4.
    PMID: 16478392
    To assess the prevalence of mutations associated with drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, genotypic resistance testing was conducted among drug-naive HIV-1 patients attending the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) between July 2003 and June 2004. Reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes of plasma virions were sequenced from 100 individuals. The majority of the patients were recently diagnosed. Codons 20-255 of the RT and 1-96 of the protease gene were examined for major and minor mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance reported by the International AIDS Society- USA (IAS-USA) Drug Resistance Mutations Group. The prevalence of patients with at least one major mutation conferring drug resistance was 1%, with only one patient having a Y181C amino acid substitution in the RT gene that confers high-level resistance to nevirapine and delavirdine. Minor mutations were detected in high prevalence in the protease gene. Amino acid substitutions I13V, E35D, and M36I were associated with CRF01_AE while L63P, V77I, and I93L were associated with subtype B. Baseline prevalence of major mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs was low among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients, suggesting that routine drug resistance testing may be unnecessary for all individuals newly diagnosed with HIV or all patients beginning antiretroviral therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Hlela C, Shepperd S, Khumalo NP, Taylor GP
    AIDS Rev, 2009 Oct-Dec;11(4):205-14.
    PMID: 19940947
    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 prevalence estimates are usually based on serological screening of blood donors, pregnant women, and other selected population groups. Previously, data on the global epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection have been summarized unsystematically and without a focus on general populations. To assess the implications of the virus for healthcare systems it is essential to know its past and present prevalence. The widely cited estimate that 10-20 million people are infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 worldwide was calculated from data that are now 25 years old. This estimate may therefore no longer reflect the global epidemiology. The objective of this study was to collate published data that are truly representative of the general population through a systematic review of the literature. Fifty-nine relevant studies were identified and the 17 that met the inclusion criteria were all cross-sectional designs; none reported incidence. The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 was highest in the two studies of Japanese islands (36.4%; 95% CI: 29.9-42.8) and lowest in studies from Mongolia, Malaysia and India. In Haiti the prevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 1.78-5.86); in Africa between 6.6% (95% CI: 4.0-9.9) and 8.5% (95% CI: 6.99-10.10) in Gabon, and 1.05% (95% CI: 0.63-1.47) in Guinea. Only three studies were from West Africa and none were from the South; the only study from India was from the north of the country. We conclude that there is a paucity of general population data from countries in which human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is endemic, and that new studies are required to reevaluate the global burden of infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. AIDS Wkly Plus, 1996 Oct 28.
    PMID: 12320487
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence*
  14. AIDS Wkly Plus, 1996 Oct 21.
    PMID: 12320478
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence*
  15. Arifin SRM, Cheyne H, Maxwell M
    AIMS Public Health, 2018;5(3):260-295.
    PMID: 30280116 DOI: 10.3934/publichealth.2018.3.260
    The purpose of this review was to examine articles related to recent epidemiological evidence of the prevalence of maternal postnatal depression (PND) across different countries and cultures and to identify specific epidemiological studies that have been carried out exclusively in Malaysia on the prevalence of maternal PND. The review was undertaken in two stages, an initial review and an updated review. At both stages systematic literature searches of online databases were performed to identify articles on the prevalence of maternal PND. A total of 124 articles concerning research conducted in more than 50 countries were included in the final analysis. There were wide variations in the screening instruments and diagnostic tools used although the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was the most common instrument applied to identify PND. The prevalence of maternal PND ranged from 4.0% to 63.9%, with Japan and America recording the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Within continents, a wide variation in reported prevalence was also found. The reported rates of maternal PND in Malaysia were much higher than that previously documented with a range of 6.8-27.3%. This review indicated that the widely cited prevalence of maternal PND of 10-15% underestimates rates of PND worldwide. The reasons for this variability may not be fully explained by review methods. Future studies should evaluate the nature of women's PND experiences across cultures to explain these wide variations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Davatchi F
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2006.00177.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Sulaiman W, Othman M, Mokhtar AM, Rosman A, Ong SG, Soo IS, et al.
    APLAR Journal of Rheumatology, 2006;9 Suppl 1:A54-A55.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2006.00199_24.x
    Objective: To determine the number of RA cases and to evaluate the demographic patterns in all 4 Rheumatology Referral Centers under the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Materials and methods: One thousand and eighty-four rheumatoid arthritis patients from all 4 centers i.e. Hospital Selayang, Putra Jaya, Seremban and Taiping which are situated in the west coast of West Malaysia, using rheumatoid arthritis database comprising of basic clinical and patient questionnaire, until the end of year 2004 were analysed. Results: At the time of documentation, 88.6% were female at all range of ages especially between age of 25 and 54 years (77.6%) with female to male ratio 8 :1. 52.1% were housewives. Mean age of onset of RA was 49.6 ± 11.8 SD with female 49.3 ± 11.7 SD and male 52.0 ± 12.0 SD (p < 0.05). Indian was the predominant ethnic group (54.5%), followed by Malay (31.4%), Chinese (11.6%) and others (27%). Majority had their education up to secondary level (50.8%), followed by primary (32.6%), and tertiary (6.3%) levels while 10.3% of cases had not received any formal education in their lives. 74.4% were seropositive and 87.3% fulfilled at least 4 out of 7 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. 74% were diagnosed RA within 2 years after the onset of arthritis. Seropositivity was not significantly related to gender. Positive rheumatoid factor was dominated by Indian followed by Malay and Chinese. 83.3% were married. 23.3% female and 33.9% male between age group 25-54 were employed. 7.4% had achieved their retirement at time of entry whilst 8.9% were unemployed. Employment status was statistically significant across gender (p < 0.001). The cases differed between rheumatology centers as well as individual practices. Conclusion: There are increasing numbers of RA cases in Malaysia. Results from this study did not reflect the true prevalence of RA in Malaysia. Hence, a larger and more comprehensive database on RA with collaboration of all Government and Private Hospitals in the whole nation will provide better information about the patient case mix in different healthcare settings, treatment practice as well as disease complications. The implementation of rheumatology centers with better regional cooperation, will lead to better treatment and outcome in terms of identification of early as well as established RA cases. Early referral to the centers will be made possible for proper treatment institution and rehabilitation. Hence, improve quality of life including socio-economic status especially among those within the productive age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Ong JSK, Menon SK, Kew ST, Menon J, Mavros P, Thong SP, et al.
    APLAR Journal of Rheumatology, 2004;7(3):196-203.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2004.00094.x
    Aims: To assess the association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract-related hospitalizations and to evaluate inpatient healthcare resource utilization associated with these complications in Malaysia.
    Methods: A retrospective case control study was performed using medical records of patients admitted to two Malaysian hospitals during 1999 and 2000. Cases were identified based on mode of presentation at hospital admission. One control was identified for each case, matched by age, sex and admission date. NSAID exposure was determined by drug use during one year prior to admission. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between NSAID use and upper GI complications, adjusting for predictors.
    Results: The 273 cases were significantly more likely to have used NSAIDs in the year prior to hospitalization than controls (27.8% vs. 6.2% of patients; P < 0.0001). Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for other predictors showed that the odds of being hospitalized for upper GI tract complications were 4.1 times higher among NSAID users than non-users (95% CI = 1.88-9.12). Other risk factors for GI-related hospitalizations were a history of upper GI tract complications (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.28-26.53), use of gastroprotective agents (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.67-16.79), and use of antacids (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.10-11.91) in the previous year.
    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NSAID exposure was significantly higher among patients hospitalized for GI-related complications than for other reasons, indicating that NSAID use is an independent risk factor for upper GI tract complications in this Malaysian sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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