Objective: To present the frequency and spectrum of viral infections in primary immunodeficient children. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders (PIDs) Registry during the period of 2004-2018. Results: A total of 274 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Overall infectious complications affected 82.4% of the patients, and viral infections affected 31.7% of the registered patients. Forty-five patients (16.4%) developed viral infections caused by at least 2 organisms, among those 20 patients were affected by three or more viral infections. There was a statistically significant association between viral infections and PID category. However, there was no statistically significant association between viral infections and gender or the patients' onset age. There was a total of 170 viral infections during the study period and the causes of these infections were predominated by CMV (22.2%), adenovirus (11.7%), EBV (11.1%), and enteroviruses (7.4%). CMV and parainfluenza infections were more common in the group of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity while EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV) were more common in the immune dysregulation group and combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, respectively. The most common presentation was viremia (28.8%) followed by pneumonia (28.2%) and skin infections (17.6%). The most common causes of viremia were CMV followed by adenovirus and EBV, while the most common organisms causing pneumonia were CMV followed by rhinovirus and parainfluenza. There were 80 deaths among the registered patients, 10% were caused by viral infections. Conclusions: Viral infections are common in PIDs and result into a wide-range of clinical manifestations causing significant morbidity and mortality.
Matched MeSH terms: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/epidemiology
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but data on long-term impact of pre-HSCT chemotherapy, immune reconstitution and quality of life (QoL) of specific SCID genotypes are limited. We evaluated the long-term immune-reconstitution, health outcome and QoL in IL7Rα SCID, Artemis and RAG1 and 2 SCID survivors > 2 years post-HSCT in our center. Clinical data and immune reconstitution parameters were collated, and patients/families answered PedsQL generic core scale v4.0 questionnaires. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of IL7Rα SCID (17 patients), Artemis SCID (8 patients) and RAG1/2 SCID (13 patients) had undergone HSCT with median age at last follow up for IL7Rα SCID, 14 years (range 4-27) and Artemis and RAG1/2 SCID, 10 years (range 2-18). Many patients have ongoing medical issues at latest follow-up [IL7Rα (73%), Artemis (85%), RAG1/2 (55%)]. Artemis SCID patients experienced more sequela than RAG1/2 SCID. Conditioned recipients with Artemis and RAG SCID had more CD4+ naïve lymphocytes compared to unconditioned recipients. All patients except those of IL7Rα SCID reported lower QoL; further subset group analysis showed parents and Artemis and RAG1/2 survivors without ongoing medical issues reported normal QoL. Conditioned recipients have superior long-term thymopoiesis, chimerism and immunoglobulin-independence. QoL was normal in those who did not have medical issues at long-term follow-up.
Matched MeSH terms: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/epidemiology*