Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 62 in total

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  1. Maleki A, Ghafourian S, Pakzad I, Badakhsh B, Sadeghifard N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1204-1210.
    PMID: 29237374 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666171213094730
    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is considered as a dangerous pathogen threatening human health. Nowadays, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system is recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis, iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery.

    METHODS: In this study, fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Firstly, they were evaluated by bioinformatics and then analyzed by experimental procedures. Secondly, the functionality was evaluated by stress conditions.

    RESULTS: Our results interestingly demonstrated that when fbpA and mazE loci of N. meningitidis were targeted by antisense PNA, 8 µM concentration of fbpA-PNA as well as 30 µM concentration of mazE-PNA inhibited the growth of N. meningitides and were found to be bacteriostatic, whereas 10 μM concentration of fbpA-PNA showed bacteriocidal activity.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the bactriocidal activity of fbpA-PNA and bacteriostatic activity of mazEPNA. Therefore, mazE and fbpA genes should be potent antimicrobial targets but further analysis including in vivo analysis should be performed.

  2. Asiful Islam M, Alam F, Kamal MA, Gan SH, Wong KK, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(11):1598-1609.
    PMID: 27875971 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666161122142950
    Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated nonfunctional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i.e. translational readthrough) regimens. In this review, we highlighted different treatment strategies of PTC targeting readthrough therapeutics including the use of aminoglycosides, ataluren (formerly known as PTC124), suppressor tRNAs, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, pseudouridylation and CRISPR/Cas9 system to treat PTC-mediated diseases. In addition, as thrombotic disorders are a group of disease with major burdens worldwide, 19 potential genes containing a total of 705 PTCs that cause 21 thrombotic disorders have been listed based on the data reanalysis from the 'GeneCards® - Human Gene Database' and 'Human Gene Mutation Database' (HGMD®). These PTC-containing genes can be potential targets amenable for different readthrough therapeutic strategies in the future.
  3. Lim TS, Chan SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(43):6480-6489.
    PMID: 27669969 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160923111924
    BACKGROUND: Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries.

    METHODS: Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection.

    RESULTS: This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases.

    CONCLUSION: We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future.

  4. Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Bagheri E, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Majid NA
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(41):6358-6365.
    PMID: 28325143 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170321093345
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in both men and women around the world. The chemistry and biological study of heterocyclic compounds have been an interesting area for a long time in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry.

    METHODS: A new synthetic compound, 2-(1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2-yl)-3-((2-hydroxyphenyl)amino) acrylaldehyde, abbreviated as DBID, was prepared through the reaction of 2-(diformylmethylidene)-1,1- dimethylbenzo[e]indole with 2-aminophenol. The chemical structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and APT-NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by elemental analysis (CHN). The compound was screened for the antiproliferation effect against colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116 and its possible mechanism of action was elucidated. To determine the IC50 value, the MTT assay was used and its apoptosisinducing effect was investigated.

    RESULTS: DBID inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells with an IC50 of 9.32 µg/ml and significantly increased the levels of caspase -8, -9 and -3/7 in the treated cells compared to untreated cells. Apoptosis features in HCT 116 cell was detected in treated cells by using the AO/PI staining that confirmed that the cells had undergone remarkable morphological changes in apoptotic bodies. Furthermore, this changes in expression of caspase -8, -9 and -3 were confirmed by gene and protein quantification using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the DBID compound has demonstrated chemotherapeutic activity which was evidenced by significant increases in the expression and activation of caspase and exploit the apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death.

  5. Soni N, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Bhattacharya P, Maheshwari R, Dua K, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017 08 30;23(21):3084-3098.
    PMID: 28356042 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170329150201
    BACKGROUND: Disseminated metastatic cancer requires insistent management owing to its reduced responsiveness for chemotherapeutic agents, toxicity to normal cells consequently lower survival rate and hampered quality of life of patients.

    METHODS: Dendrimer mediated cancer therapy is advantageous over conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection due to reduced systemic toxicity, and molecular level cell injury to cancerous mass, for an appreciable survival of the subject. Recently used dendrimer mediated nanotechnology for oncology aims to conquer these challenges. Dendrimers based nano-constructs are having architectures comparable to that of biological vesicles present in the human body.

    RESULTS: Operating with dendrimer technology, proffers the exclusive and novel strategies with numerous applications in cancer management involving diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and prognostics by sub-molecular interactions. Dendrimers are designed to acquire the benefits of the malignant tumor morphology and characteristics, i.e. leaky vasculature of tumor, expression of specific cell surface antigen, and rapid proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: Dendrimers mediated targeted therapy recommends innovatory function equally in diagnostics (imaging, immune-detection) as well as chemotherapy. Currently, dendrimers as nanomedicine has offered a strong assurance and advancement in drastically varying approaches towards cancer imaging and treatment. The present review discusses different approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment such as, targeted and control therapy, photodynamic therapy, photo-thermal therapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenics therapy, radiotherapy etc.

  6. Vijayan V, Shalini K, Yugesvaran V, Yee TH, Balakrishnan S, Palanimuthu VR
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(28):3366-3375.
    PMID: 30179118 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180903110301
    BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is not treatable by chemotherapy drugs, due to the lack of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) on the cell surface.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.

    METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.

    RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.

    CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.

  7. Kumarasamy V, Anbazhagan D, Subramaniyan V, Vellasamy S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(27):3172-3175.
    PMID: 30084327 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180807101536
    Blastocystis sp. is a unicellular parasitic microorganism commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. It causes symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and its route of transmission is via fecal-oral. High prevalence of Blastocystis infection in developing countries is usually due to poor hygiene practices, exposure to animals infected with the parasite and intake of contaminated water or food. Blastocystis infected individuals often suffer from diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and stomach bloating. Even though pathogenicity of Blastocystis is unclear, it is commonly associated with irritable bowel syndrome. In this review, we have analysed the evidence that shows the association between this microorganism and gastrointestinal disorders. There have been a number of studies which showed that the pathogenicity of Blastocystis is related to its different STs. The pathogenicity is speculated to be due to cysteine proteases formation which stimulates mucosal cells to release interleukin-8 which has been associated with extreme dehydration and gut inflammation. In vitro studies on human colonic epithelial cells revealed that incubation of Blastocystis modulated the host immune response by stimulating the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor. Metronidazole is found to be the first-line drug of choice. Another treatment option is the combination therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
  8. Reginald K, Chan Y, Plebanski M, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1157-1173.
    PMID: 28914200 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170913163904
    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity. This can be achieved by designing a multi-epitope peptide vaccine comprising B, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes. As recognition of T cell epitopes are restricted by human leukocyte antigens (HLA), T cell epitopes which are able to recognize several major HLAs will be preferentially included in the vaccine design. While peptide vaccines are safe, biocompatible and cost-effective, it is poorly immunogenic. Strategies to improve its immunogenicity by the use of long peptides, adjuvants and nanoparticle delivery mechanisms are discussed.
  9. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

  10. Tiash S, Chowdhury ME
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(37):5752-5759.
    PMID: 26864311
    Despite being widely used for treating cancer, chemotherapy is accompanied by numerous adverse effects as a result of systemic distribution and nonspecific interactions of the drugs with healthy tissues, eventually leading to therapeutic inefficacy and chemoresistance. Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) as one of the chemotherapeutic pro-drugs is activated in liver and used to treat breast cancer in high dose and in combination with other drugs. In an attempt to reduce the off-target effects and enhance the therapeutic efficacy, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles that had predominantly and size-dependently been localized in liver following intravenous administration, were employed to electrostatically immobilize Cyp and purposely deliver it to the liver for activation. Cyp-loaded particles formed by simple 30 min incubation at 37ºC of the DMEM (pH 7.4) medium containing CaCl2 and Cyp, enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity at different degrees depending on the cell types. The size of the particles could be tightly controlled by the amount of CaCl2 required to prepare the particles and thus the bio-distribution pattern inside different organs of the body. Unlike the small particles (~ 200 nm), the large size particles (~ 600 nm) which were more efficiently accumulated in liver, significantly reduced the tumor volume following intravenous injection in 4T1-induced murine breast cancer model at a very low dose (0.17 mg/Kg) of the drug initially added for complex formation, thus shedding light on the potential applications of the Cyp-loaded nano-formulations in the treatment of breast cancer.
  11. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

  12. Yee PT, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(44):6694-6700.
    PMID: 27510488 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160720165613
    The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. Common HFMD symptoms are high fever (≥ 39°C), rashes, and ulcers but complications due to virulent EV-A71 may arise leading to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents. Recent studies have reported the emergence of novel antiviral agents and vaccines that utilize microRNAs (miRNAs). They belong to a class of small (19-24 nt) non coding RNA molecules. As miRNAs play a major role in the host regulatory system, there is a huge opportunity for interplay between host miRNAs and EV-A71 expressions. A total of 42 out of 64 miRNAs were up-regulated in EV-A71-infected cells. There was consistent up-regulation of miR-1246 gene expression that targeted the DLG3 gene which contributes to neurological pathogenesis. In contrast, miR-30a that targets calcium channels for membrane transportation was down-regulated. This leads to repression of EV-A71 replication. The impact of host miRNAs on immune activation, shutdown of host protein synthesis, apoptosis, signal transduction and viral replication are discussed. miRNAs have been used in the construction of live attenuated vaccines (LAV) such as the poliovirus LAV that has miRNA binding sites for let-7a or miR-124a. The miRNAbearing vaccine will not replicate in neuronal cells carrying the corresponding miRNA but could still replicate in the gastrointestinal tract and hence remains to act as immunogens. As such, miRNAs are attractive candidates to be developed as vaccines and antivirals.
  13. Kanauchi O, Andoh A, AbuBakar S, Yamamoto N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(6):710-717.
    PMID: 29345577 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180116163411
    Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases. We discuss the unique roles of these agents in modulating the cross-talk between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. In addition, we provide an overview of the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated through the stimulation of type 1 interferon production by probiotics and paraprobiotics via the activation of dendritic cells. Although further detailed research is necessary in the future, probiotics and/or paraprobiotics are expected to be among the rational adjunctive options for the treatment of various viral diseases.
  14. Bagheri E, Saremi K, Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(13):1395-1404.
    PMID: 29384057 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180130124308
    Quinazoline is an aromatic bicyclic compound exhibiting several pharmaceutical and biological activities. This study was conducted to investigate the potential wound healing properties of Synthetic Quinazoline Compound (SQC) on experimental rats. The toxicity of SQC was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. The healing effect of SQC was assessed by in vitro wound healing scratch assay on the skin fibroblast cells (BJ-5ta) and in vivo wound healing experiment of low and high dose of SQC on adult Sprague-Dawley rats compared with negative (gum acacia) and positive control (Intrasite-gel). Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's Trichrome (MT) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to evaluate the histopathological alterations and proteins expression of Bax and Hsp70 on the wound tissue after 10 days. In addition, levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in wound tissue homogenates. The SQC significantly enhanced BJ-5ta cell proliferation and accelerated the percentage of wound closure, with less scarring, increased fibroblast and collagen fibers and less inflammatory cells compared with the negative control. The compound also increases endogenous enzymes and decline lipid peroxidation in wound homogenate.
  15. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

  16. Mozar FS, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(28):3283-3296.
    PMID: 30062957 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180730161721
    PEG-functionalized nanoparticles as carriers of chemotherapeutics agents have been explored with notable successes in preclinical and clinical stages of cancer treatment, with some already approved by FDA, namely PEGylated liposomes and polymers. Half-life extension of therapeutic agents through PEGylation process improves their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, thereby reducing their dosing frequency. Protein corona composition of PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) confers a tremendous influence on their surface characteristics which directly impact tumor accumulation and clearance properties of the drugs. By controlling the size and complexity of PEG molecules, as well as by attaching targeting moieties, the surface characteristics of NPs can be manipulated to improve their tumor uptake without sacrificing the circulation time. This review focuses on design and applications of PEGylated NPs for tumor targeted drug delivery in animal models and clinical setting.
  17. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Yee GS, Bhattamisra SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2828-2841.
    PMID: 31333092 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190716102037
    Adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, released from different cells within the body to act on vasculature and immunoescape. The physiological action on the proliferation of tumour cell has been reported by the presence of high concentration of adenosine within the tumour microenvironment, which results in the progression of the tumour, even leading to metastases. The activity of adenosine exclusively depends upon the interaction with four subtypes of heterodimeric G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors (AR), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3-ARs on the cell surface. Research evidence supports that the activation of those receptors via specific agonist or antagonist can modulate the proliferation of tumour cells. The first category of AR, A1 is known to play an antitumour activity via tumour-associated microglial cells to prevent the development of glioblastomas. A2AAR are found in melanoma, lung, and breast cancer cells, where tumour proliferation is stimulated due to inhibition of the immune response via inhibition of natural killer cells cytotoxicity, T cell activity, and tumourspecific CD4+/CD8+ activity. Alternatively, A2BAR helps in the development of tumour upon activation via upregulation of angiogenin factor in the microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of MAPK and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation activity. Lastly, A3AR is expressed in low levels in normal cells whereas the expression is upregulated in tumour cells, however, agonists to this receptor inhibit tumour proliferation through modulation of Wnt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Several researchers are in search for potential agents to modulate the overexpressed ARs to control cancer. Active components of A2AAR antagonists and A3AR agonists have already entered in Phase-I clinical research to prove their safety in human. This review focused on novel research targets towards the prevention of cancer progression through stimulation of the overexpressed ARs with the hope to protect lives and advance human health.
  18. Muhamad II, Zulkifli N, Selvakumaran SA, Lazim NAM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(11):1147-1162.
    PMID: 31258069 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190618152133
    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increased interest in the utilization of polysaccharides showing biological activity for various novel applications owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and some specific therapeutic activities. Increasing studies have started in the past few years to develop algal polysaccharides-based biomaterials for various applications.

    METHODS: Saccharide mapping or enzymatic profiling plays a role in quality control of polysaccharides. Whereby, in vitro and in vivo tests as well as toxicity level discriminating polysaccharides biological activities. Extraction and purification methods are performed in obtaining algal derived polysaccharides followed by chromatographic profiles of their active compounds, structural features, physicochemical properties, and reported biological activities.

    RESULTS: Marine algae are capable of synthesizing Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and non-GAGs or GAG mimetics such as sulfated glycans. The cell walls of algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including alginate, carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. These biopolymers are widely used algal-derived polysaccharides for biological and biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and availability. They constitute biochemical compounds that have multi-functionalization, therapeutic potential and immunomodulatory abilities, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of biomedical applications.

    CONCLUSION: Algal-derived polysaccharides with clearly elucidated compositions/structures, identified cellular activities, as well as desirable physical properties have shown the potential that may create new opportunities. They could be maximally exploited to serve as therapeutic tools such as immunoregulatory agents or drug delivery vehicles. Hence, novel strategies could be applied to tailor multi-functionalization of the polysaccharides from algal species with vast biomedical application potentials.

  19. Choudhury H, Chellappan DK, Sengupta P, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2808-2827.
    PMID: 31309883 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190712181955
    The ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, adenosine is found in different cells of the human body to provide its numerous pharmacological role. The associated actions of endogenous adenosine are largely dependent on conformational change of the widely expressed heterodimeric G-protein-coupled A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). These receptors are well conserved on the surface of specific cells, where potent neuromodulatory properties of this bioactive molecule reflected by its easy passage through the rigid blood-brainbarrier, to simultaneously act on the central nervous system (CNS). The minimal concentration of adenosine in body fluids (30-300 nM) is adequate to exert its neuromodulatory action in the CNS, whereas the modulatory effect of adenosine on ARs is the consequence of several neurodegenerative diseases. Modulatory action concerning the activation of such receptors in the CNS could be facilitated towards neuroprotective action against such CNS disorders. Our aim herein is to discuss briefly pathophysiological roles of adenosine on ARs in the modulation of different CNS disorders, which could be focused towards the identification of potential drug targets in recovering accompanying CNS disorders. Researches with active components with AR modulatory action have been extended and already reached to the bedside of the patients through clinical research in the improvement of CNS disorders. Therefore, this review consist of recent findings in literatures concerning the impact of ARs on diverse CNS disease pathways with the possible relevance to neurodegeneration.
  20. Zeeshan F, Madheswaran T, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(42):5019-5028.
    PMID: 30621558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190101111525
    BACKGROUND: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of interindividual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the fabrication of new drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Medicinal products printed using 3-D technology are transforming the current medicine business to a plausible alternative of conventional medicines.

    METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.

    RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.

    CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.

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