The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp).
A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening.
Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption.
Four repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) methods, namely repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR), polytrinucleotide (GTG)₅ -PCR and BOX-PCR, were evaluated for the molecular differentiation of 12 probiotic Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and used as a multistrain probiotic. This study represents the first analysis of the comparative efficacy of these four rep-PCR methods and their combination (composite rep-PCR) in the molecular typing of Lactobacillus strains based on a discriminatory index (D).
Phytate-bound phosphorus (P) in poultry diets is poorly available to chickens. Hence exogenous phytase is often added to their diets. Mitsuokella jalaludinii is a rumen bacterial species that produces high phytase activity. In this study the effects of freeze-dried active M. jalaludinii culture (FD-AMJC) and Natuphos(®) phytase (phytase N) supplementations on the growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broiler chickens fed a low-available P (aP) diet were evaluated.
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes worldwide, with 200 million metric tons produced per year. However, the inedible soy husk would usually be removed during the process and the continuous generation of soybean husk may represent a major disposal problem for soybean processing industries. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to convert soybean husk (S) amended with market-rejected papaya (P) into vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae.
C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
BACKGROUND: We evaluated glycaemic response of a brown rice variant (BR) developed by cross-breeding. Subjects (n = 9) consumed 50 g carbohydrate equivalents of BR, white rice (WR) and the polished brown rice (PR) in comparison to 50 g glucose reference (GLU) in a cross-over design. Plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 15, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min were measured and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and indices for glucose (GI) and insulin (II) calculated.
RESULTS: BR compared to PR or WR produced the lowest postprandial glycaemia (GI: 51 vs 79 vs 86) and insulinaemia (II: 39 vs 63 vs 68) irrespective of amylose content (19 vs 23 vs 26.5%). Only BR was significantly different from GLU for both plasma glucose (P = 0.012) and insulin (P = 0.013) as well as IAUC(glu) (P = 0.045) and IAUC(ins) (P = 0.031). Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses correlated positively (r = 0.550, P < 0.001). Linear trends for IAUC(glu) and IAUC(ins) indicated a greater secretion of insulin tied in with a greater glycaemic response for WR (r(2) = 0.848), moderate for PR (r(2) = 0.302) and weakest for BR (r(2) = 0.122).
CONCLUSION: The brown rice variant had the lowest GI and II values but these advantages were lost with polishing.
Recently much attention has been paid to biologically active plants because of their low production cost and fewer adverse effects compared with chemical drugs. In the present investigation the bioactivity of Phyllanthus niruri ethanol and aqueous extracts was evaluated in vitro.
Jering (Archidendron jiringa) is eaten in the tropics and traditionally extolled for treating diabetes, high blood pressure and eliminating bladder stones. Jering contains an unusual amino acid-djenkolic acid (S,S'-methylenebiscysteine)-which may form sharp crystals in the urinary tract, causing pain and haematuria. This study evaluates the beneficial and toxic effects of dietary jering on tissues and organs in normal and diabetic rats.
Diacylglycerol (DAG), which has health-enhancing properties, is sometimes added to bakery shortening to produce baked products with enhanced physical functionality. Nevertheless, the quantity present is often too little to exert any positive healthful effects. This research aimed to produce bakery shortenings containing significant amounts of palm diacyglycerol (PDG). Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of the PDG bakery shortenings during 3 months storage were evaluated and compared with those of commercial bakery shortening (CS).
Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats.
Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
Considering the importance of malting and roasting on the quality of 'acha' beverages, a study was conducted to find optimum conditions for malting and the production of a high-quality roasted extract that could be used for an 'acha' beverage.
Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C.
This study aims to investigate the textural properties and sensory qualities of cookies made from medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarines. Margarine with formulations of MLCT:palm olein:palm stearin, 60:30:10 and 70:20:10, were selected to produce cookies. The textural properties of cookies were determined using a texture analyser. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance test were carried out to describe the attributes and to evaluate the degree of liking of cookies, respectively.
Probiotics are live micro-organisms that exert beneficial effects on their host. A high survival rate during gastrointestinal transit and storage is often desirable. The main aim of this study was to develop protective carriers for probiotics via the use of enzymatically crosslinked soy protein isolate incorporated with agrowastes such as banana peel, banana pulp, cempedak rind and cocoa rind.
Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours. Therefore, the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamomum pubescens Kochummen (CP) and the whole plant of Etlingera elatior (EE) were investigated for their antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties.