Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 101 in total

  1. Suzaily Wahab, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Soo, Tze Hui, Siti Juliana Hussin, Mohd Fekri Ahmat Nazri, Izzatul Izzanis Abd Hamid, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):531-537.
    Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
    with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
    and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
    untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
    and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
    clinical and selected demographic factors.

    Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
    ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
    using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
    Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
    direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
    have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
    percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
    and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
    anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.

    Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
    fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
    to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
    illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
    clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
    education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
    were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
    among the IHD patients.

    Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
    with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
    carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
  2. Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu, Noor Hassim Ismail, Krishna Gopal Rampal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):543-548.
    Introduction Physical activity reduces risk of non-communicable diseases. Physical
    activity prevalence is low due to barriers to physical activity. This study was
    conducted to translate the Barrier to Physical Activity (BPA) questionnaire
    into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the translated version
    among nurses.

    Methods The Malay version of BPA was developed after translating the English
    version of BPA through back to back translation process. The Malay BPA
    was distributed among 306 volunteered nurses from 5 government hospitals
    in Selangor state. Factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and test – retest
    reliability was conducted to determine psychometric properties of BPA.

    Results Chronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 for perceived benefits items and 0.51
    for perceived barrier items (overall was 0.73). The ICC was 0.88 (95% CI:
    0.78-0.93) for test-retest testing after 7 days. Two factors components were
    yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.9 and 2.0
    respectively. Both the factors accounts for 31.4 % of the variance. Factor 1
    included 14 items and explained 19.9% of the variance. Factor 2 consisted of
    5 items and explained 11.5% of variance. CFA yielded two factor structures
    with acceptable goodness of fit indices [x2/df = 23.99; GFI = 0.82, SRMR =
    0.09; PNFI = 0.49 and RMSEA = 0.10 (90%CI = 0.09-0.11)].

    Conclusions The Malay version of BPA had demonstrated satisfactory level of validity
    and reliability to assess barriers to physical activity. Therefore, this
    questionnaire is valid in assessing barriers to physical activity among
    working population.
  3. Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Wesabi, Zaleha Md Isa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):560-568.
    Introduction There is a strong and increased worldwide interest on the aspects of
    prevention of oral disease and oral health promotion in dental education.
    However, some studies imply that dental students are not knowledgeable
    enough in this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of, attitude
    towards and practice on preventive dentistry among senior dental students in

    Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among senior dental
    students in six dental schools in Yemen. The questionnaire obtained personal
    information, and questions about knowledge on preventive dental care,
    attitudes towards and practice on preventive dentistry.

    Results Among 346 students who filled the questionnaire, a total of 91.6% has good
    knowledge about fissure sealant effectiveness, only 34.7% knows about the
    importance of fluoride toothpaste compared to brushing technique in
    preventing caries, with significant gender difference (p=0.005). Odds of good
    knowledge among non-Qat chewers was 1.9 (95%CI: 1.26-4.42).
    Multivariable regression analysis indicated that female gender was associated
    with higher positive attitudes (OR: 2.03, 95%CI:1.21-3.36,p=0.007).
    Attitudes were significantly associated with Qat chewing (OR = 1.95,
    95%CI: 1.04-3.66, p=0.03), type of university (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.36-0.94,
    p=0.02), and mothers' level of education (OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.05-3.47,
    p=0.03). There was a high percentage of competency in practicing preventive
    measures among students (80.9%).

    Conclusions Dental education should emphasize the overall aspects of preventive dentistry
    with early exposure of preventive dental training in order to improve
    students' knowledge and attitudes and consequently practice on preventive
  4. Ameen Saleh Saleh Sherah, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):597-605.
    Introduction An Analysis of a Survey Questionnaire on health care workers’ knowledge
    and practices regarding of infection control and complains them to apply
    universal precautions. Health care workers are at substantial risk of acquiring
    blood borne pathogen infections through exposure to blood or other products
    of patients. To assess of infection control among health care workers in
    Sana'a healthcare centers, Yemen.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the health center to assess
    knowledge and practices regarding of infection control among 237 health
    workers in Sana,a city. A structured self-administered questionnaires were
    used and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the associations were
    tested with chi-square, with p-value of < 0.05.

    Results The health care workers in public centers ware (51.1%) and (48.9%) of them
    works in private centers. One hundred and seventeen (49.4%) respondents
    had poor infection control knowledge, 113 (43.5%) had fair knowledge, and
    17 (7.2%) had good knowledge. The knowledge was significantly associated
    with type of center (P < 0.018), such that the public center had the highest
    proportion with poor knowledge. And nurses and midwife having the highest
    proportion with fair knowledge of infection control. Eight (3.4%) respondents
    had a poor practice of universal precautions, 93 (39.2%) had fair practice, and
    136 (57.4%) good practice. The practice was significantly associated with the
    profession, level of education and work experience (P < 0.001), (P < 0.006),
    (P < 0.001) respectively, and nurses and midwives as the profession with the
    highest proportion with good practice.

    Conclusion We conclude that the practices and knowledge of universal precautions were
    low and that's need for intensive programmes to educate health care workers
    on various aspects of standard precautions and infection control programmes
    and policies.
  5. Fateh Addin Nejm Addin Al-Emad, Zaleha Md. Isa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):783-790.
    The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in Sana'a Yemen related to exposure to second-hand smoking.
  6. Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin, Hayati Kadi @ Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):774-782.
    Smoking is one of the addiction problems that needs an effective intervention. Smoking cessation studies have shown the promising result, but the central issue was to prevent relapse. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Quit Smoking Clinic in Klinik Kesihatan Tanglin, Kuala Lumpur to determine the outcome and predictors of smoking cessation.
  7. Narwani Hussin, Hafizah Jumat, Mabelle Wong, Liau Siow Yen, Jeremy Robert Jinuin Jimin, Beh Boon Cong, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):757-764.
    Rheumatic heart disease is still endemic in developing countries and among the indigenous population in developed countries. However, there is no comprehensive data on rheumatic heart disease patients in Malaysia. The Cardiology Department of Queen Elizabeth ll Hospital (QEH ll), Sabah started this hospital-based registry in 2010. The objective of this analysis was to report the demographic profile, severity of disease, types of valve involvement and the practice of secondary prophylaxis among these patients.
  8. Kamal Kenny, Zoharah Omar, El Sheila Kanavathi, Priya Madhavan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):765-773.
    Health care systems play a vital role in providing health services and in optimising the population’s health of each nation. The Malaysian health care system primarily consists of the public and private health services. One of the prominent private health care services offered in the General Practitioner’s (GP) Clinic. Despite the prominent role GPs play in the health care system in this country, little is known about their practices, the issues and challenges faced by GPs in this country. The objective of this study was to describe the current GP practice operations in Malaysia in terms of its general operations, financial expenditure and revenue, market competitiveness and laboratory services offered by the clinics.
  9. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
  10. Rashidah Ambak, Balkish Mahadir Naidu, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Syafinaz Mohd Sallehuddin, Tahir Aris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):449-456.
    Introduction Food labeling regulation has been implemented to enable consumers,
    including those with chronic diseases to make healthy informed choices
    before purchasing pre-packaged foods. The purpose of this study is to
    determine the prevalence of obese adults in Malaysia who practice reading
    food labels. It explored types of labels read and understanding of the

    Methods Findings presented in this study were captured from the secondary analysis of
    National Health and Morbidity Survey’s (NHMS, 2006) food label study
    which focused only on obese adults (BMI > 30 kg/m2) aged 18 and above.
    This nation-wide cross sectional study was conducted from April to August
    2006 using an interview-based questionnaire. Complex data analysis was
    done using Stata version 12.0.

    Results There were 4565 obese respondents with the mean age of 33 ± 9.7 (18 – 60
    years old). About 54.7% completed high-school and 9.9% were higher degree
    holders. Prevalence of obese adults who claimed to read label was 80.5%
    (95%CI: 79.3, 81.6). Findings showed significant results in reading and
    understanding labels among all age group categories, Malay, Indian and other
    Bumiputras, all education categories and married respondents. Expiry date
    was the highest percentage being read (74.5%), followed by fat content
    (15.3%), vitamin (11.8%) and carbohydrate (10.9%).

    Conclusions The obese population in Malaysia claimed to read and understand the food
    label but did not focus on specific macronutrients related to their health
    condition. Findings can be used to implement effective education
    programmes targeting the relevant groups to instill an awareness to read,
    understand and use the label information as one of the means in combating
  11. Muhammad Firdaus Ujang, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):500-509.
    Introduction Prevalence of adolescents involved in sexual and reproductive problems is on
    rise and it was associated with its knowledge. Several factors found to be
    associated with the knowledge and various sources of knowledge are chosen
    by adolescents for this information. Thus, this study was to determine the
    knowledge score, its influencing factors and the preference of the sources of

    Methods A cross-sectional study was done using adopted questionnaire involving 330
    respondents aged 18 and 19 years old in Kolej MARA Seremban selected by
    simple random sampling. They were gathered in the halls and 338
    adolescents from 454 students consented to involve in this study. Selfadministered
    questionnaire was used whereby a correct response was given a
    score of 2, 0 for an incorrect response and 1 for an answer of don’t know.
    Total score for all correct answers was 42. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and
    multivariate analysis was done in the analysis.

    Results The mean knowledge score was 37.32 (±2.967) with a significant difference
    for gender. Internets were the most common and preferred sources of the
    knowledge among them. There was 5.2% of them had heard on SMS
    intervention and 37.0% of them disagreed on SMS intervention.

    Conclusions The result showed that the knowledge score was lower in males than females
    and internets were the most preferred source of the knowledge. Thus,
    interventions for knowledge improvement should be more on male
  12. Rozaimah Abu Talib, Idayu Badilla Idris, Rosnah Sutan, Norizan Ahmad, Norehan Abu Bakar, Sharifah Hildah Shahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):719-726.
    Introduction In Malaysia although mortality rate among women of reproductive ages has
    reduced over the years, the reduction has been stagnant for the past ten years.
    In order to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal, several measures
    need to be taken including a proper implementation of pre-pregnancy
    services in this country. This study explores the awareness, intention and
    usage of pre-pregnancy care (PPC) services and its determinant among
    women of reproductive ages in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Methods This is a qualitative study, which consisted of a focus group discussion
    (FGD) among women in the ages of 18 to 45 years old from all ethnic groups
    who attended four government clinics in the state of Kedah. The mothers
    were chosen through purposive sampling from twelve districts that were
    selected through a multistage random sampling. A semi-structured
    questionnaire was utilized during the FGD. The results from the FGD were
    recorded verbatim and thematic analysis was finalized once saturation of
    information from respondents was achieved.

    Results These are two themes was identified, namely personal reasons and reasons of
    service and there are several subthemes under two main themes. Under the
    Personal reason themes, the subthemes including awareness and intention to
    used the services, knowledge, perception, social support and history of
    medical illness. While under pre-pregnancy care services themes, the
    subthemes including the promotion of the services, the communication
    relationship with the health staff, the waiting time and also the accessibility
    of the service.

    Conclusions As a conclusion, there is still part of society who was unaware of prepregnancy
    services and its importance in reducing maternal mortality rate as
    well as producing good pregnancy outcome. Information and knowledge on
    pre-pregnancy care services should be disseminated among community
    members through various means including roadshows and pre wedding
  13. Hasimah Ismail, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Lim, Kuang Kuay
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing
    existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes
    complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes
    prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of
    dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in
    Kuala Lumpur.

    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in
    this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was
    used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary
    practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken.
    Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good
    glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.

    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest
    percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%),
    aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and
    those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%).
    About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c
    (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant
    relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant
    relationship with the HbA1c level.

    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on
    modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control
    among diabetic patients.
  14. Satrinawati, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):472-479.
    Introduction The health of newborns is inextricably linked to that of their mothers. Some
    maternal factors can influence neonatal survival, particularly for low birth
    weight babies who are more vulnerable to diseases than normal weight
    babies. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of maternal factors on
    neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province,

    Methods Study design was unmatched case control. Data collected from 2010 to 2012
    in 8 districts in Aceh province, Indonesia. Total sample was 500, divided into
    250 LBW who died in neonatal period (case group) and 250 who did not die
    in neonatal period (control group). There were 6 maternal variables analysed.

    Results Three of six variables analysed were not associated with neonatal mortality
    among LBW (P > 0.05); these were: maternal death, parity and education
    level. The age of the mother had a significant association with neonatal
    mortality among LBW (P < 0.05), but was not a determinant factor. The
    maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW(P < 0.05); maternal illness (Adj OR= 2.6; 95 % CI:
    1.68 - 4.0) and birth interval (Adj OR= 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.20 - 2.91).

    Conclusions Maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW. Appropriate care throughout stages of pregnancy and
    increasing women’s knowledge on high risk pregnancy are the key factors to
    the decrease of the neonatal mortality related to the maternal factors.
  15. Narwani Hussin, Wong, Mabelle, Liew, Houng Bang, Liau, Siow Yen
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):736-740.
    Introduction: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) has been thought as a disease of poor socioeconomic status. It is more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries than in developed countries. It is also common among the population with multiple social issues such as overcrowded dwellings, undernutrition, poor sanitation and suboptimal medical care. This study was done to review the socio demographic profiles of RHD patients in Hospital Queen Elizabeth (HQE) II, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
    Methods: A secondary data review of all patients registered under the RHD registry in HQE II for one- year starting from July 2013 to June 2014.
    Results: 204 RHD patients were included. Nearly three quarter (74.0%) were female. The mean age was 40.43 (14.75) years old. 61.1% has completed secondary
    education. 42.7% were housewives. The mean monthly income was RM 1363.83 (1297.05) which was categorized under the vulnerable income group. When they were categorized under the poverty level and the vulnerable income group, 42.6% and 76.5% of them fell under those categories respectively. The nearest health facilities to their houses were district hospitals (33.3%) with the mean distance of 9.17 km and health clinics (30.8%) with the mean distance of 4.27 km. Only 11.5% of them lived near the specialist hospitals with the mean distance of 21.32 km.
    Conclusions: Results from this review suggested that majority of RHD patients were in the low socioeconomic group with less access to health care facilities with specialist care. They are the most vulnerable groups and need to be prioritized in the specialized care program. .
  16. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
  17. Balsam Mahdi Nasir Al-Zurfi, Maher D. Fuad Fuad, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Maged Elnajeh, Mohammed Faez Baobaid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):750-756.
    Introduction Drug abuse has been a global threat not only in Malaysia but worldwide,
    especially among adolescents. This is alarming issue had been a serious
    public health problem worldwide. The aim of the study is to access the
    knowledge and attitude on drug abuse among Pahang Matriculation students
    in 2016.

    Methods A cross¬-sectional study was conducted involving 217 matriculation
    students. A self-determined questionnaire was distributed among the students
    regarding knowledge and attitude about drugs.

    Results The prevalence of good knowledge on drug abuse was (82.03%). The
    prevalence of students’ attitude on drug abuse has higher number of good
    attitude with the sum of 182 (83.9 %). Only gender showed a significant
    association with students’ knowledge (P= 0.046).

    Conclusion The knowledge, attitude, and practice of drug abuse among Pahang
    Matriculation students are good.
  18. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):419-424.
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), is one of the most important micronutrient
    deficiencies which has multiple adverse effects on growth and development.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDD among school
    children and to elucidate the distribution of iodized salt at household level in
    Sarawak, East Malaysia.

    Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 8 to 10
    years in 2008. A multi-stage probability proportionate to population size
    (PPS) cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative state
    sample of 1200 school children. Spot urine samples were collected for the
    determination of urinary iodine concentration while the iodine content in salt
    was determined using field rapid test kits. The thyroid status was determined
    by palpation.

    Results Response rate was 92.0% (n=1104/1200). The prevalence of goitre among
    school children in Sarawak was 2.9% (5.2% in urban, 0.7% in rural). The
    median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the school children was
    102.1 μg/L (IQR, 62.3-146.5 μg/L). Urban children had significantly higher
    median UIC of 109.3 μg/L (IQR, 72.4-159.0 μg/L) than their rural
    counterparts [91.9 μg/L (IQR, 55.7-140.2 μg/L)]. The salt samples tested by
    rapid test kit (RTK) showed only 46.0% of household salt contained iodine.

    Conclusions The present study revealed that the population in Sarawak were of borderline
    iodine sufficient with mild IDD seen in rural areas. Hence, the state IDD
    control programmes need to encourage and advocate the consumption of
    iodized salt in order to eliminate IDD-related health problems in Sarawak.
  19. Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Norehan Abdullah, Shri Dewi Applanaidu
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):741-749.
    Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
    rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
    evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
    identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
    its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
    Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
    – diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
    multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
    descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
    urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
    analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
    visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.

    Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
    gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
    probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
    controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.

    Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
    for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age
  20. Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Jonathan Lamit, Nor Farahana Razali, Ong, Li Chin, Naim Syahidah Zulkafli, Norfazilah Ahmad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):494-500.
    Introduction Sleep has played a very important role in maintaining our health with good
    living quality therefore the aim of this study is to determine the pattern of
    sleep duration, especially short sleep and its associated factors among
    workers in a tertiary institution.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January until May 2012 among
    128 randomly selected Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre
    (UKMMC) staffs. Data was collected using a guided standardized data sheet
    which consist of three sections; (1):sociodemographic &socioeconomic, (2):
    lifestyle and, (3): anthropometric measurement and sleep diary. Data entry
    and analysis were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
    version 20.0.
    Results Majority of the staffs had normal sleep duration (67.2%) followed by short
    sleep duration (26.6%) and long sleep duration (6.3%). Simple logistic
    regression analysis indicated that late night snacking was significantly related
    to short sleep (cOR=3.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 12.23, p=0.048).
    Conclusions Adequate sleep is important to maintain one’s health. Steps can be taken to
    limit late night snacking in order to improve the sleep pattern in this study
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