Introduction A study was conducted to determine the level of mothers' perception on
children with cleft deformity and its associated factors
Methods This was a cross sectional study involving 110 mothers with children
attending the Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery Clinic. Data was gathered
from a face to face interview based on a questionnaire that assesses the level
of perception and its associated factors. The level of perception was
evaluated from a scoring method and divided into four domains namely
psychosocial, care management, treatment and education.
Results The level of perception was high in all four domains ranged from 62% for
treatment and 80% for education. Factors that were significantly associated
with the level of perception were ethnicity, religion, type of cleft deformity
and level of information.
Conclusions Information regarding cleft deformity must be tailored toward mothers’
personal characteristics and type of cleft deformity to improve mothers'
perception on this problem.
Introduction The quality of education is one of the controversial topics and vital issues that
requires more emphases from researchers due to the current challenges in
education at the university level. Involvement and participation from the
studentis essential to implement quality assurance and to reach for academic
accreditation. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitudes, and
practices (KAP) of students towards TQM in education and its influencing
factorsatHigh Institute of Health Sciences (HIHS) in Sana'a, Yemen.
Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was
conducted in 2016. A total of 208 students from second and third study levels
in HIHS had participated from 268 students were observed (study
population). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and one-way ANOVA were
used to determine the association between students’ KAP towards TQM in
education with its influencing factors.
Results Mean age of the students were 22.44(SD±2.027) year old. Majority of HIHS
students were male 135 (64.9%) and 108 (51.9%) were from the third
studying level. The highest students' KAP scores were 53.4%, 65.4%, and
41.3% for good knowledge, good attitudes, and moderate practices
respectively. Education Department was found to be significantly associated
with students' knowledge and practices with p
Introduction The most effective and affordable public health strategy to prevent
hypertension, stroke and renal disease is by reducing daily salt consumption.
Therefore, this study aims to determine the association of knowledge, attitude
and practice on salt diet intake and to identify foods contributing to high
Methods Secondary data analysis was performed on MySalt 2016 data. It was
conducted from November 2015 until January 2016 which involving Ministry
of Health Staff worked at 16 study sites in Malaysia. Salt intake was
measured using 24 hours urinary sodium excretion. Food frequency
questionnaire was used to determine the sodium sources. Knowledge, attitude
and practice of salt intake were assessed using a validated questionnaire
adapted from WHO. Demographic data and anthropometric measures also
were collected. Sodium levels of more than 2400mg/day was categorised as
high sodium intake. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 21.
Results The mean sodium intake estimated by 24 hours urinary sodium excretion was
2853.23 + 1275.8 mg/day. Food groups namely rice/noodles (33.8%),
sauces/seasoning (20.6%), meat and poultry (12.6%) and fish/seafoods
(9.3%) were the major contributors of dietary sodium. In multiple logistic
regression analysis, being a male (aOR=2.83, 95% CI 2.02 – 3.96) and obese
(aOR=6.78, 95% CI 1.98 – 23.18) were significantly associated with high
urinary sodium excretions. In addition, those who were unsure that high salt
intake can cause hypertension (aOR=1.24, 95% CI 0.65 – 2.36), those who
think that they consumed too much salt (aOR=2.10, 95% CI 1.13 – 3.87) and
those who only use salt rather than other spices for cooking (aOR=2.07, 95%
CI 1.29 – 3.30) were significantly associated with high urinary sodium
Conclusions This study showed that the main sources of sodium among Malay healthcare
staff is cooked food. Poor knowledge and practice towards reducing salt
consumption among them contributes to the high sodium consumption. The
practice of healthy eating among them together with continuous awareness
campaign is essential in order to educate them to minimize sodium
consumption and to practice healthy eating.
Introduction: Most health advisories related to outdoor physical activity during haze are general in nature. The advisories normally advise everyone to reduce or limit prolonged exertion or heavy exertion without mentioning the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity causing difficulty for public to decide to stop or cancel a particular outdoor or sport event. The aim of this paper is to determine the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity pattern during haze based on API level.
Methods: Health risk assessment approach that comprises of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization steps was used to determine the potential inhaled dose and risk associated with performing the physical activity during haze. We have considered many factors that include time spent for physical activity patterns for Malaysian adult, age and physical intensity-specific inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. A hypothetical exposure scenario of PM10 was created using the breakpoints of PM10 concentration for the calculation of respective API levels during haze.
Results: The association between physical activity pattern, API level and risk quotient were presented in the form of risk radar diagram. Based on the 50th percentile inhalation rate, all prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be avoided when API reach >201 (very unhealthy) and >175 (unhealthy) respectively. Below the said API, the duration for performing prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be reduced according to the API level. When API reaches 140, high intensity physical activity should be limited to < 90 minutes. A football match which requires 90 minutes, should be postponed of cancelled if API > 140. Whereas, for the same API level, prolonged exertion (moderate intensity physical activity) should be limited to 4 hours.
Conclusions: Reducing the physical activity is an effective strategy to lower the dose of inhaled pollutants and reduce the health risk during poor air quality. Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk assessment methodology, we proposed all prolonged exertion should be avoided when API reach very unhealthy status (>201). Below the said API level, outdoor physical activity should be reduced according to the level of API respectively. The recommendation is not applicable for the sensitive groups. The computed risk radar provide a valuable guide for the public to organize or considering postponing an outdoor event during haze.
Emotional and behavioural problems among children have been increasing in many western as
well as the eastern countries. Although the problem has been given attention and priority in
terms of early detection, many children with early symptoms of emotional and behavioural
problems has still not been detected at the early stages. This phenomenon is worrying as mental
health problems were shown to be stable in the long run and if left undetected it may manifest
into various problems in adulthood. This paper explores the issues on emotional and
behavioural problems in terms of its definition, prevalence, aetiology, long term consequences
and treatment. It also explores on mental health problems in a non-western country, i.e.
Malaysia including its prevalence and intervention strategies which has been carried out in
overcoming this worrying issue. Finally this review paper stresses the importance of providing
a well-designed epidemiological study in Malaysia in assessing the current prevalence of
emotional and behavioural problems in young children and adolescent
Introduction Congenital malformations (CM) comprise a wide range of abnormalities of
body structure or function that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin.
It has contributed to a significant proportion of infant morbidity and
mortality. The aims of this study were to determine the extent and investigate
the relationship between CM and its associated demographic variables.
Methods Data was extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database compiled from
the reports on Stillbirth & Under 5 Mortality from year 2013 to 2014.
Results Out of 9,827 child death, 2,840 (28.9%) were classified under CM as defined
under ICD-10 classification. Majority of those with CMs died at neonatal
stage (62.7%) and among mothers aged between 20 to 35 years old (67.3%).
The mean age of mothers among CM children was 30.8±6.5 years old.
Approximately 5.8%, 6.7% and 3.3 % of total CM were neural tube defects,
heart defects and hydrops fetalis respectively. The prevalence of CM in males
was 15% higher than females. The difference were evident between CM and
age of death of children under 5 years old (p
Introduction Tong Nibong is a Bidayuh village located at Sarawak Kalimantan border.
Since the year 2004 to 2009, a total of 537 cases of malaria were recorded in
Serian District of which 14 cases were reported from Kampung Tong
Nibong. Community empowerment programme for malaria infection
prevention showed tremendous improvement in implementation. This
intervention study aims to gauge the effectiveness of community
empowerment approach in malaria elimination programme in Kampung Tong
Methods An intervention study was conducted with pre and post data collection. Data
was collected using validated questionnaire by face to face interview.
Universal sampling method was used to select respondents from head of
household and post data was collected after intervention activities were
carried out within a year of study period.
Results The study showed significant difference on level of knowledge of
respondents on vector of malaria between pre and post data with a P < 0.05.
There was significant difference between pre and post data on practices on
control and prevention of malaria with a P < 0.05. The same goes to level of
positive attitude of respondents towards malaria control.
Conclusions In conclusion, the study can be considered successful because there is
significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice among the
respondents between pre and post data. This indicates that community
empowerment (voluntary participation) measures can be implemented in high
risk or endemic areas where malaria is a persistent problem to the community
and health institutions faces many limiting factors.
Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men
attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still
require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion
and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men
attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
Methods A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public
health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A
validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic
questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation
diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were
Results The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE
15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education
(p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR
1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after
controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological
disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain
namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all
domains with p
Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative
disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the most frequent sub-cortical
degenerative disease, characterized by universal progressive disorder of the
nervous system that affects movement. This cross sectional study aimed to
determine the prevalence and correlates of PD among elderly attending the
neurology clinic in Serdang Hospital.
Methods A total of 150 records of patients attended the clinic from January to
December 2016 were randomly selected. Data was collected using a
proforma form seeking information related to age, gender, race, locality, and
presence of comorbidity particularly diabetes mellitus. The data was analysed
using the Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) version 22.0.
Results The prevalence of PD among the elderly involved in the study was 34%.
Majority of the respondents were aged 60 to 70 years old (54.7%), male
(53.3%), Chinese (56.7%), from urban locality (93.0%) and were not diabetic
(69.3%). The inferential statistics showed no significant association between
all the factors with PD. However, the associations between age and diabetes
mellitus with PD were almost significant with p values of 0.07 and 0.08
Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of PD among elderly who attended the neurology
clinic in year 2016 was less than half with none of the factors under study
were significantly associated with PD. However with bigger sample size,
possible significant association may be obtained between age and diabetes
Introduction There is an increasing trend of obesity in children and adolescent globally.
The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of overweight
and obesity among students from secondary schools and to determine the
mean random blood sugar (RBS) for the overweight and obese students.
Methods This was a cross sectional study. Two secondary schools that were scheduled
for visit by the School Health Team, Taiping in July 2016 were included. A
standardized data collection sheet was used to collect the data. Overweight
and obesity were defined based on WHO 2007 reference for BMI-for-age
criteria. Random blood glucose was checked for overweight and obese
Results A total of 184 school students consented and participated. 128 (69.6%) were
female and 90 (48.9%) were Malays. The mean weight and height were 56.21
kg and 1.61 m respectively with BMI of 21.49 kg/m2
. Overall, the prevalence
of obese and overweight were 12.5% and 10.9% respectively. Among the 4
BMI groups, there were no significant difference found in sex (p=0.849) and
races (p=0.536). However, there was significant difference (p=0.042) in
mean RBS for obese and overweight students between races. RBS readings
among overweight and obese students were within normal range with mean
of 5.95 (0.67) mmol/l (range between 4.60 – 7.70 mmol/l).
Conclusions The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were comparable with
other studies done in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there was no prevalence of
Type II diabetes mellitus among them.
Introduction The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and a disease with high morbidity
and mortality.Young mothers are sub-populations that are at high risk for HIV
through sexual activity. In addition, information on the level of knowledge,
attitude and practice among young mothers in Malaysia regarding HIV/AIDS
prevention is still limited.Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine
the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of
HIV/AIDS among young mothers and the factors that influence them.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in a city center
among 147 young mothers aged 18-30 years old at the Post Natal and
Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward (O & G). Data collection was conducted in
April-November 2014 and the respondents' selection was based on simple
random sampling. A questionnaire containing validated instruments was used
in this study. Approval for conducting research has been obtained from the
UKM Research Ethics Committee before the data collection procedure is
Results Majority of the young mothers have good knowledge (78.8%) and practice
(71.2%) towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While more than half of them (56.7%)
have positive attitude towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Living in the
urban area and being married are significantly associated with having good
knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While,
mothers who are 5 years older compared to the younger ones and being
married are significantly associated with having good practice towards
Conclusions The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the associated
factors could be the baseline to formulate health intervention to prevent
HIV/AIDS among this vulnerable group.
Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
(UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
(week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.