Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 101 in total

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  1. Norlen Mohame, Lokman Hakim, S., Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Ahmad Riadz Mazeli, Sirajuddin Hashim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):814-828.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Most health advisories related to outdoor physical activity during haze are general in nature. The advisories normally advise everyone to reduce or limit prolonged exertion or heavy exertion without mentioning the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity causing difficulty for public to decide to stop or cancel a particular outdoor or sport event. The aim of this paper is to determine the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity pattern during haze based on API level.

    Methods: Health risk assessment approach that comprises of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization steps was used to determine the potential inhaled dose and risk associated with performing the physical activity during haze. We have considered many factors that include time spent for physical activity patterns for Malaysian adult, age and physical intensity-specific inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. A hypothetical exposure scenario of PM10 was created using the breakpoints of PM10 concentration for the calculation of respective API levels during haze.

    Results: The association between physical activity pattern, API level and risk quotient were presented in the form of risk radar diagram. Based on the 50th percentile inhalation rate, all prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be avoided when API reach >201 (very unhealthy) and >175 (unhealthy) respectively. Below the said API, the duration for performing prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be reduced according to the API level. When API reaches 140, high intensity physical activity should be limited to < 90 minutes. A football match which requires 90 minutes, should be postponed of cancelled if API > 140. Whereas, for the same API level, prolonged exertion (moderate intensity physical activity) should be limited to 4 hours.

    Conclusions: Reducing the physical activity is an effective strategy to lower the dose of inhaled pollutants and reduce the health risk during poor air quality. Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk assessment methodology, we proposed all prolonged exertion should be avoided when API reach very unhealthy status (>201). Below the said API level, outdoor physical activity should be reduced according to the level of API respectively. The recommendation is not applicable for the sensitive groups. The computed risk radar provide a valuable guide for the public to organize or considering postponing an outdoor event during haze.
  2. Idayu Badilla Idris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):829-835.
    MyJurnal
    Emotional and behavioural problems among children have been increasing in many western as
    well as the eastern countries. Although the problem has been given attention and priority in
    terms of early detection, many children with early symptoms of emotional and behavioural
    problems has still not been detected at the early stages. This phenomenon is worrying as mental
    health problems were shown to be stable in the long run and if left undetected it may manifest
    into various problems in adulthood. This paper explores the issues on emotional and
    behavioural problems in terms of its definition, prevalence, aetiology, long term consequences
    and treatment. It also explores on mental health problems in a non-western country, i.e.
    Malaysia including its prevalence and intervention strategies which has been carried out in
    overcoming this worrying issue. Finally this review paper stresses the importance of providing
    a well-designed epidemiological study in Malaysia in assessing the current prevalence of
    emotional and behavioural problems in young children and adolescent
  3. Hasnor Hadi Asim, Normawati Ahmad, Abu Bakar Rahman, Nik Mansor Ibrahim, Mohd Nasir Abdullah, Md Sabtuah Royali, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):807-813.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Tong Nibong is a Bidayuh village located at Sarawak Kalimantan border.
    Since the year 2004 to 2009, a total of 537 cases of malaria were recorded in
    Serian District of which 14 cases were reported from Kampung Tong
    Nibong. Community empowerment programme for malaria infection
    prevention showed tremendous improvement in implementation. This
    intervention study aims to gauge the effectiveness of community
    empowerment approach in malaria elimination programme in Kampung Tong
    Nibong Serian.
    Methods An intervention study was conducted with pre and post data collection. Data
    was collected using validated questionnaire by face to face interview.
    Universal sampling method was used to select respondents from head of
    household and post data was collected after intervention activities were
    carried out within a year of study period.
    Results The study showed significant difference on level of knowledge of
    respondents on vector of malaria between pre and post data with a P < 0.05.
    There was significant difference between pre and post data on practices on
    control and prevention of malaria with a P < 0.05. The same goes to level of
    positive attitude of respondents towards malaria control.
    Conclusions In conclusion, the study can be considered successful because there is
    significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice among the
    respondents between pre and post data. This indicates that community
    empowerment (voluntary participation) measures can be implemented in high
    risk or endemic areas where malaria is a persistent problem to the community
    and health institutions faces many limiting factors.
  4. Diana Maha, Zaleha Md Isa, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Mohd Ihsani Mahmood, Fatimah Othman, Rashidah Ambak
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):860-870.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The most effective and affordable public health strategy to prevent
    hypertension, stroke and renal disease is by reducing daily salt consumption.
    Therefore, this study aims to determine the association of knowledge, attitude
    and practice on salt diet intake and to identify foods contributing to high
    sodium intake.
    Methods Secondary data analysis was performed on MySalt 2016 data. It was
    conducted from November 2015 until January 2016 which involving Ministry
    of Health Staff worked at 16 study sites in Malaysia. Salt intake was
    measured using 24 hours urinary sodium excretion. Food frequency
    questionnaire was used to determine the sodium sources. Knowledge, attitude
    and practice of salt intake were assessed using a validated questionnaire
    adapted from WHO. Demographic data and anthropometric measures also
    were collected. Sodium levels of more than 2400mg/day was categorised as
    high sodium intake. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 21.
    Results The mean sodium intake estimated by 24 hours urinary sodium excretion was
    2853.23 + 1275.8 mg/day. Food groups namely rice/noodles (33.8%),
    sauces/seasoning (20.6%), meat and poultry (12.6%) and fish/seafoods
    (9.3%) were the major contributors of dietary sodium. In multiple logistic
    regression analysis, being a male (aOR=2.83, 95% CI 2.02 – 3.96) and obese
    (aOR=6.78, 95% CI 1.98 – 23.18) were significantly associated with high
    urinary sodium excretions. In addition, those who were unsure that high salt
    intake can cause hypertension (aOR=1.24, 95% CI 0.65 – 2.36), those who
    think that they consumed too much salt (aOR=2.10, 95% CI 1.13 – 3.87) and
    those who only use salt rather than other spices for cooking (aOR=2.07, 95%
    CI 1.29 – 3.30) were significantly associated with high urinary sodium
    excretion.
    Conclusions This study showed that the main sources of sodium among Malay healthcare
    staff is cooked food. Poor knowledge and practice towards reducing salt
    consumption among them contributes to the high sodium consumption. The
    practice of healthy eating among them together with continuous awareness
    campaign is essential in order to educate them to minimize sodium
    consumption and to practice healthy eating.
  5. Rozita Zakaria, Lim, Ming Tsuey, Norsiah Ali, Nurainul Hana Shamsuddin, Norseha Isnin, Siti Hafsah Abdul Halim, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):871-877.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Congenital malformations (CM) comprise a wide range of abnormalities of
    body structure or function that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin.
    It has contributed to a significant proportion of infant morbidity and
    mortality. The aims of this study were to determine the extent and investigate
    the relationship between CM and its associated demographic variables.
    Methods Data was extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database compiled from
    the reports on Stillbirth & Under 5 Mortality from year 2013 to 2014.
    Results Out of 9,827 child death, 2,840 (28.9%) were classified under CM as defined
    under ICD-10 classification. Majority of those with CMs died at neonatal
    stage (62.7%) and among mothers aged between 20 to 35 years old (67.3%).
    The mean age of mothers among CM children was 30.8±6.5 years old.
    Approximately 5.8%, 6.7% and 3.3 % of total CM were neural tube defects,
    heart defects and hydrops fetalis respectively. The prevalence of CM in males
    was 15% higher than females. The difference were evident between CM and
    age of death of children under 5 years old (p
  6. Mosa'ad Mohaideen, Aref Yousuf, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):852-859.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The quality of education is one of the controversial topics and vital issues that
    requires more emphases from researchers due to the current challenges in
    education at the university level. Involvement and participation from the
    studentis essential to implement quality assurance and to reach for academic
    accreditation. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitudes, and
    practices (KAP) of students towards TQM in education and its influencing
    factorsatHigh Institute of Health Sciences (HIHS) in Sana'a, Yemen.
    Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was
    conducted in 2016. A total of 208 students from second and third study levels
    in HIHS had participated from 268 students were observed (study
    population). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and one-way ANOVA were
    used to determine the association between students’ KAP towards TQM in
    education with its influencing factors.
    Results Mean age of the students were 22.44(SD±2.027) year old. Majority of HIHS
    students were male 135 (64.9%) and 108 (51.9%) were from the third
    studying level. The highest students' KAP scores were 53.4%, 65.4%, and
    41.3% for good knowledge, good attitudes, and moderate practices
    respectively. Education Department was found to be significantly associated
    with students' knowledge and practices with p
  7. Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Mohd Hafiz Yahya, Normala Basiron, Zairizam Zakaria, Mohd Rizam Abdul Rahman, Hazlina Mohd Miskam, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):836-844.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction A study was conducted to determine the level of mothers' perception on
    children with cleft deformity and its associated factors
    Methods This was a cross sectional study involving 110 mothers with children
    attending the Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery Clinic. Data was gathered
    from a face to face interview based on a questionnaire that assesses the level
    of perception and its associated factors. The level of perception was
    evaluated from a scoring method and divided into four domains namely
    psychosocial, care management, treatment and education.
    Results The level of perception was high in all four domains ranged from 62% for
    treatment and 80% for education. Factors that were significantly associated
    with the level of perception were ethnicity, religion, type of cleft deformity
    and level of information.
    Conclusions Information regarding cleft deformity must be tailored toward mothers’
    personal characteristics and type of cleft deformity to improve mothers'
    perception on this problem.
  8. Minhat Halimatus Sakdiah, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Abdul Syafiq A. Radzis, Ng, Yiet Fai, Nur Syazwany Nasir Khan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):894-898.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative
    disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the most frequent sub-cortical
    degenerative disease, characterized by universal progressive disorder of the
    nervous system that affects movement. This cross sectional study aimed to
    determine the prevalence and correlates of PD among elderly attending the
    neurology clinic in Serdang Hospital.
    Methods A total of 150 records of patients attended the clinic from January to
    December 2016 were randomly selected. Data was collected using a
    proforma form seeking information related to age, gender, race, locality, and
    presence of comorbidity particularly diabetes mellitus. The data was analysed
    using the Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) version 22.0.
    Results The prevalence of PD among the elderly involved in the study was 34%.
    Majority of the respondents were aged 60 to 70 years old (54.7%), male
    (53.3%), Chinese (56.7%), from urban locality (93.0%) and were not diabetic
    (69.3%). The inferential statistics showed no significant association between
    all the factors with PD. However, the associations between age and diabetes
    mellitus with PD were almost significant with p values of 0.07 and 0.08
    respectively.
    Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of PD among elderly who attended the neurology
    clinic in year 2016 was less than half with none of the factors under study
    were significantly associated with PD. However with bigger sample size,
    possible significant association may be obtained between age and diabetes
    mellitus.
  9. Zulkifli Harun, Saharuddin Ahmad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):878-874.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men
    attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still
    require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion
    and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men
    attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
    Methods A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public
    health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A
    validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic
    questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation
    diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were
    used.
    Results The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE
    15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education
    (p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR
    1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after
    controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological
    disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain
    namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all
    domains with p
  10. Norfazilah Ahmad, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Incham Manggat, Mohd Rizam Abdul Rahman, Hazlina Mohd Miskam, Sazman Wahab, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):913-923.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and a disease with high morbidity
    and mortality.Young mothers are sub-populations that are at high risk for HIV
    through sexual activity. In addition, information on the level of knowledge,
    attitude and practice among young mothers in Malaysia regarding HIV/AIDS
    prevention is still limited.Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine
    the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of
    HIV/AIDS among young mothers and the factors that influence them.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in a city center
    among 147 young mothers aged 18-30 years old at the Post Natal and
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward (O & G). Data collection was conducted in
    April-November 2014 and the respondents' selection was based on simple
    random sampling. A questionnaire containing validated instruments was used
    in this study. Approval for conducting research has been obtained from the
    UKM Research Ethics Committee before the data collection procedure is
    implemented.
    Results Majority of the young mothers have good knowledge (78.8%) and practice
    (71.2%) towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While more than half of them (56.7%)
    have positive attitude towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Living in the
    urban area and being married are significantly associated with having good
    knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While,
    mothers who are 5 years older compared to the younger ones and being
    married are significantly associated with having good practice towards
    HIV/AIDS prevention.
    Conclusions The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the associated
    factors could be the baseline to formulate health intervention to prevent
    HIV/AIDS among this vulnerable group.
  11. Nor Dalila Marican, Rozita Hod, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Azmi Hassan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):933-938.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
    affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
    significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
    complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
    for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
    arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
    reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
    evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
    the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
    health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
    Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
    study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
    Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
    participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
    groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
    The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
    intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
    reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
    scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
    life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
    Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
    (UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
    ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
    Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
    (week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
    Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
    control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
    back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
    management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.
  12. Edmund Yu, Wei Chang, Narwani Hussin, Marliana Abd Rahim, Sreevali, Muthuvadivelu, Chan, Wai Seong
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):907-912.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction There is an increasing trend of obesity in children and adolescent globally.
    The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of overweight
    and obesity among students from secondary schools and to determine the
    mean random blood sugar (RBS) for the overweight and obese students.
    Methods This was a cross sectional study. Two secondary schools that were scheduled
    for visit by the School Health Team, Taiping in July 2016 were included. A
    standardized data collection sheet was used to collect the data. Overweight
    and obesity were defined based on WHO 2007 reference for BMI-for-age
    criteria. Random blood glucose was checked for overweight and obese
    students.
    Results A total of 184 school students consented and participated. 128 (69.6%) were
    female and 90 (48.9%) were Malays. The mean weight and height were 56.21
    kg and 1.61 m respectively with BMI of 21.49 kg/m2
    . Overall, the prevalence
    of obese and overweight were 12.5% and 10.9% respectively. Among the 4
    BMI groups, there were no significant difference found in sex (p=0.849) and
    races (p=0.536). However, there was significant difference (p=0.042) in
    mean RBS for obese and overweight students between races. RBS readings
    among overweight and obese students were within normal range with mean
    of 5.95 (0.67) mmol/l (range between 4.60 – 7.70 mmol/l).
    Conclusions The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were comparable with
    other studies done in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there was no prevalence of
    Type II diabetes mellitus among them.
  13. Norfazilah Ahmad, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Nurmawati Ahmad, Zaleha Md Nor, Juhaida Mohd Noor, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):924-932.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and
    middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis.
    Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective
    targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
    Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database,
    this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact
    screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of
    appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24
    articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
    Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is
    better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include
    close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1
    year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited
    setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified
    case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol.
    Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less
    than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV
    and close contact with MDR-TB.
    Conclusions Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate
    complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management
    protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health
    capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders
  14. Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, Ahmad Fareed Abdul Rahman Aniza Ismail, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azimatunnoor Aizuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):950-955.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The availability of obesity specific quality of life measurement tool is limited.
    The Malay version of Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite is an obesity
    specific quality of life questionnaire which has been translated for use in
    Malaysia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of this
    questionnaire to measure quality of life among different body mass index
    (BMI) groups.
    Methods One hundred and twenty subjects with different BMI categories who attended
    an outpatient government clinic were recruited for this study. The translated
    Malay version of IWQOL-Lite was used to assess the impact of weight on
    quality of life of respondents. Content validity, criterion validity and construct
    validity were used to assess the questionnaire validity while internal
    consistencies and test-retest reliability were used to assess the questionnaire
    reliability.
    Results The Malay version of IWQOL-Lite showed good psychometric properties. The
    content validity was agreed upon by expert panels. The mean score of all
    IWQOL-Lite domains were able to discriminate between different BMI
    groups. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha of
    0.936. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.828 to 0.932. The physical function
    score (IWQOL-Lite) correlated positively with Physical Component Summary
    of Short Form-36 questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis found that the
    questions loaded on their respective five domains.
    Conclusions The results suggested that the Malay version of IWQOL-Lite is a valid and
    reliable tool to measure quality of life among obese and overweight subjects in
    Malaysia.
  15. Afifah Idris, Rosnah Ismail
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):885-893.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Married couples often do influence each other’s emotions and behaviors. The
    effect of this interpersonal marriage relationship on emotional job demands
    and job performance toward work-family conflict (WFC) is still under
    research. This article aims to determine the effects of married couple’s job
    factors (emotional job demands and job performance) on wife’s WFC.
    Methods A total of 120 dyads in private sectors were recruited via private invitations
    to social gatherings. Packets of self-administered questionnaires were given
    included emotional domain of Demand-Induced Strain Compensation,
    Spielberger Trait Anger Scale, work-family conflict and job performance
    measures. Dyadic analysis using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was
    used.
    Results The emotional demand of wife significantly contribute higher effect (ES=
    0.34 (95%CI: 0.23, 0.45); p
  16. Safurah Khairul Fadzil, Marhanis Salihah Omar, Noorlaili Mohd Tohit
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):998-105.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The use of dietary supplements had risen over the years among chronic
    disease patients with most of it were of patients' own initiative. This study
    aimed to describe the supplements use, assess the knowledge and attitude
    towards supplements and its interaction with prescribed medication, and
    determine whether knowledge and attitude towards supplements could
    influence treatment adherence in chronic disease patients.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among chronic disease patients in
    Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur from
    September to November 2016 upon their written informed consent. This
    study consists of a collection of validated instruments that measured the use
    of dietary supplements and its reason; the knowledge and attitude on dietary
    supplements and supplements-drug interaction and medication adherence.
    Results A total number of 250 respondents were interviewed and 72.4% was found to
    use supplements of own initiatives. Most of the respondents were using
    supplements to maintain health (78.8%), prevent health problems (72.4%)
    and improve overall health (63.2%). It was found that respondents'
    knowledge on supplement-drug interactions were not at the satisfactory level.
    The treatment adherence was found not to be associated with knowledge and
    attitude towards supplements nor numbers of supplements use.
    Conclusions Chronic disease patients mainly knew on the purpose of supplements for
    health and wellness, but had less knowledge on supplement-drug interactions,
    warranting patients' education on that particular field.
  17. Siti Nor Mat, Norzaher Ismail, Syafiq Taib, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohammad Saffree Jeffre, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1006-1014.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
    including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
    burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
    and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
    pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
    Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
    from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
    searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
    and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
    “uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
    pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
    reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
    discussion and consensus.
    Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
    discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
    reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
    socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
    highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
    domains.
    Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
    for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
    towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
    pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
    acceptance among the population.
  18. Mohd Shafik Abd Majid, Fadzrul Hafiz Johani, Wan Rosmawati Wan Ismail, Diyana Mohd Mokhtar, Qistina Mohd Ghazali, Norfazilah Ahmad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1005-1024.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth that infects humans
    through contact with soil containing the larvae.
    Methods A systematic search was performed for relevant titles, abstract and keywords
    in database from Cochrane Library, PLOS One, PubMed and several other
    sources in October 2017 based on PICO strategy. Out of 511 papers that were
    evaluated for possible inclusion, final assessment for eligibility has yielded a
    total of 17 papers to be included which were found suitable for analysis
    covering period from 2012 till 2016.
    Results A major challenge of giving an overview of prevalence data for S. stercoralis
    lies in the low sensitivity of diagnostic method used which resulted in very
    low prevalence in certain countries. Cambodia and Laos presented with high
    prevalence ranging from 17.4% to 45.9% by using high sensitivity of
    diagnostic methods. The current prevalence situation of S. stercoralis in
    Southeast Asia still have wide gaps remains due to several reasons.
    Conclusions The information we have today only scratches the surface which cannot truly
    reflect the true burden of S. stercoralis in Southeast Asia The main risk factor
    is personal hygiene practices especially amongst males.
  19. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Nur Azna Mahmud, Hasimah Ismail, Tan, Beng Chin, Chua, Boon Kee, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):980-986.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the
    neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine
    the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction
    of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
    Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child
    Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th
    June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for
    urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff
    reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined
    as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the
    WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions
    were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu,
    Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota
    Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
    Results The median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine
    deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC
  20. Natrah Rani, Faiz Daud, Hamidah Alias
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):988-997.
    MyJurnal
    Pengenalan Penjagaan pesakit kanak-kanak leukemia memerlukan pemerhatian dan
    tumpuan yang tinggi untuk memastikan rawatan yang disarankan oleh Pakar
    Perubatan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik. Perkara ini sedikit sebanyak akan
    menjejaskan fungsi sosial, meningkatkan stres, kebimbangan dan
    kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga. Oleh itu, kajian irisan lintang ini
    dijalankan untuk mengkaji prevalen serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
    stres, kebimbangan dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga kepada pesakit
    leukemia kanak-kanak.
    Metodologi Sampel kajian adalah seramai 54 orang. Data diukur menggunakan DASS-21
    versi Bahasa Malaysia yang telah divalidasi oleh kajian lepas.
    Keputusan Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa prevalen stres tahap rendah dalam kalangan
    penjaga kepada pesakit leukemia kanak-kanak adalah sebanyak 88.9%
    manakala prevalen stres tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 11.1%. Prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 90.7% dan prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 9.3%. Prevalen kemurungan
    tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 96.3% dan prevalen kemurungan tahap tinggi
    adalah sebanyak 3.7% dalam kalangan penjaga. Terdapat beberapa faktor
    yang mempengaruhi stres dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga secara
    signifikan (p
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