Displaying all 5 publications

  1. Abdullah AN, Ahmad AH, Zakaria R, Tamam S, Abdullah JM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Jun;28(3):65-76.
    PMID: 34285645 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.3.6
    Background: Lesion studies have shown distinct roles for the hippocampus, with the dorsal subregion being involved in processing of spatial information and memory, and the ventral aspect coding for emotion and motivational behaviour. However, its structural connectivity with the subdivisions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the executive area of the brain that also has various distinct functions, has not been fully explored, especially in the Malaysian population.

    Methods: We performed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging with probabilistic tractography on four Malay males to parcellate the hippocampus according to its relative connection probability to the six subdivisions of the PFC.

    Results: Our findings revealed that each hippocampus showed putative connectivity to all the subdivisions of PFC, with the highest connectivity to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Parcellation of the hippocampus according to its connection probability to the six PFC subdivisions showed variability in the pattern of the connection distribution and no clear distinction between the hippocampal subregions.

    Conclusion: Hippocampus displayed highest connectivity to the OFC as compared to other PFC subdivisions. We did not find a unifying pattern of distribution based on the connectivity-based parcellation of the hippocampus.

  2. Govindasamy V, Abdullah AN, Ronald VS, Musa S, Ab Aziz ZA, Zain RB, et al.
    J Endod, 2010 Sep;36(9):1504-15.
    PMID: 20728718 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2010.05.006
    Lately, several new stem cell sources and their effective isolation have been reported that claim to have potential for therapeutic applications. However, it is not yet clear which type of stem cell sources are most potent and best for targeted therapy. Lack of understanding of nature of these cells and their lineage-specific propensity might hinder their full potential. Therefore, understanding the gene expression profile that indicates their lineage-specific proclivity is fundamental to the development of successful cell-based therapies.
  3. Abdul Hadi MFR, Abdullah AN, Hashikin NAA, Ying CK, Yeong CH, Yoon TL, et al.
    Med Phys, 2022 Dec;49(12):7742-7753.
    PMID: 36098271 DOI: 10.1002/mp.15980
    PURPOSE: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an important technique that can help design advanced and challenging experimental setups. GATE (Geant4 application for tomographic emission) is a useful simulation toolkit for applications in nuclear medicine. Transarterial radioembolization is a treatment for liver cancer, where microspheres embedded with yttrium-90 (90 Y) are administered intra-arterially to the tumor. Personalized dosimetry for this treatment may provide higher dosimetry accuracy compared to the conventional partition model (PM) calculation. However, incorporation of three-dimensional tomographic input data into MC simulation is an intricate process. In this article, 3D Slicer, free and open-source software, was utilized for the incorporation of patient tomographic images into GATE to demonstrate the feasibility of personalized dosimetry in hepatic radioembolization with 90 Y.

    METHODS: In this article, the steps involved in importing, segmenting, and registering tomographic images using 3D Slicer were thoroughly described, before importing them into GATE for MC simulation. The absorbed doses estimated using GATE were then compared with that of PM. SlicerRT, a 3D Slicer extension, was then used to visualize the isodose from the MC simulation.

    RESULTS: A workflow diagram consisting of all the steps taken in the utilization of 3D Slicer for personalized dosimetry in 90 Y radioembolization has been presented in this article. In comparison to the MC simulation, the absorbed doses to the tumor and normal liver were overestimated by PM by 105.55% and 20.23%, respectively, whereas for lungs, the absorbed dose estimated by PM was underestimated by 25.32%. These values were supported by the isodose distribution obtained via SlicerRT, suggesting the presence of beta particles outside the volumes of interest. These findings demonstrate the importance of personalized dosimetry for a more accurate absorbed dose estimation compared to PM.

    CONCLUSION: The methodology provided in this study can assist users (especially students or researchers who are new to MC simulation) in navigating intricate steps required in the importation of tomographic data for MC simulation. These steps can also be utilized for other radiation therapy related applications, not necessarily limited to internal dosimetry.

  4. Govindasamy V, Ronald VS, Abdullah AN, Nathan KR, Ab Aziz ZA, Abdullah M, et al.
    J Dent Res, 2011 May;90(5):646-52.
    PMID: 21335539 DOI: 10.1177/0022034510396879
    The post-natal dental pulp tissue contains a population of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells known as dental pulp stromal/stem cells (DPSCs), with high proliferative potential for self-renewal. In this investigation, we explored the potential of DPSCs to differentiate into pancreatic cell lineage resembling islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs). We isolated, propagated, and characterized DPSCs and demonstrated that these could be differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineage upon exposure to an appropriate cocktail of differentiating agents. Using a three-step protocol reported previously by our group, we succeeded in obtaining ICAs from DPSCs. The identity of ICAs was confirmed as islets by dithiozone-positive staining, as well as by expression of C-peptide, Pdx-1, Pax4, Pax6, Ngn3, and Isl-1. There were several-fold up-regulations of these transcription factors proportional to days of differentiation as compared with undifferentiated DPSCs. Day 10 ICAs released insulin and C-peptide in a glucose-dependent manner, exhibiting in vitro functionality. Our results demonstrated for the first time that DPSCs could be differentiated into pancreatic cell lineage and offer an unconventional and non-controversial source of human tissue that could be used for autologous stem cell therapy in diabetes.
  5. Govindasamy V, Ronald VS, Abdullah AN, Ganesan Nathan KR, Aziz ZA, Abdullah M, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2011 Nov;13(10):1221-33.
    PMID: 21929379 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2011.602337
    BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.
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