BACKGROUND: The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) is a self-assessment scale designed to evaluate anhedonia in various psychiatric disorders. In order to facilitate its use in Malaysian settings, our current study aimed to examine the validity of a Malay-translated version of the SHAPS (SHAPS-M).
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 depressed patients and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from a university out-patient clinic. All participants were given both the Malay and English versions of the SHAPS, Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale (FCPS), General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and levels of depression.
RESULTS: The results showed that the SHAPS-M has impressive internal consistency (α = 0.96), concurrent validity and good parallel-form reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC = 0.65).
CONCLUSION: In addition to demonstrating good psychometric properties, the SHAPS-M is easy to administer. Therefore, it is a valid, reliable, and suitable questionnaire for assessing anhedonia among depressed patients in Malaysia.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; anhedonia; depression; neuroscience; pleasure; psychiatry; psychology; validation
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The implementation of diversion pouches is to minimise the risk of bacterial contamination as the initial blood flow is prevented from entering primary bag collections as it is diverted into a pouch. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination in the diversion pouches used during blood collections in the Transfusion Department of Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia.
Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The most recent Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS)-MyCite report has shown that it has achieved a level becoming of a leading national medical science journal. This editorial reports on submission and acceptance rates of MJMS throughout the year 2013 and their geographical contributors. Our rejection rate of 29.76% with a 21.95% withdrawal rate because of poor quality of content and data as well as plagiarism indicates the seriousness of this journal to maintain the integrity and quality of it's scientific data.
A cross-sectional prospective study has been conducted on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients using negative (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scans and elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. The main objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of the conversion of differentiated to dedifferentiated thyroid cancer patients during follow up at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur. It has been demonstrated that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is inversely proportional to the iodine concentration and to differentiation of the cells.
Although open tibial fractures are common in Malaysia, the outcomes for these patients have not been evaluated in the literature. This retrospective study was conducted to examine the factors associated with infection and non-union in open tibial fractures managed at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, in 2009.
BACKGROUND: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees' health. However, the dimensionality of the work-family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire.
METHODS: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, of the work-family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia.
RESULTS: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women.
KEYWORDS: factor analysis; professional-family relation; validity and reliability; working women
Cerebral tuberculosis is the most severe type of extrapulmonary disease that is in developing countries highly predominant in children. Meningeal tuberculosis is the most common form and usually begins with respiratory infection followed by early haematogenous dissemination to extrapulmonary sites involving the brain. In comparison with the lung, Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a very different immune response when infect the central nervous system. Herein, we review several aspects of the pathogenesis and immune response in pulmonary and cerebral tuberculosis in humans and experimental models and discuss the implications of this response in the cerebral infection outcome.
Post-traumatic parotid sialocoele is a subcutaneous extravasation of saliva from the parotid gland secondary to traumatic disruption of its duct or parenchyma. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best therapy for parotid sialocoele, as it is resistant to conservative management. The present paper puts forward a relatively simple, safe and effective technique for the treatment of parotid sialocoele, specifically a peroral drainage technique. The results justify our recommendation to use this approach for the treatment of sialocoele.
A young man was admitted with sudden onset of right-sided weakness. He was assessed in the emergency department, and an immediate computed tomography (CT) perfusion study of the brain was arranged, which showed a left middle cerebral artery territory infarct with occlusion of the M1 segment. There was a significant penumbra measuring approximately 50% of the arterial territory. By the time his assessment was completed, it was 5.5 hours from the onset of symptoms. He was nonetheless administered intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) based on the significant penumbra. He was discharged from the hospital after one week with significant residual deficit. At 2 months clinic follow-up, he showed almost complete recovery with a Modified Rankin Score of 1. We hope to demonstrate that a significant penumbra is an important determinant for good neurological recovery and outcome following stroke thrombolysis, even when patients present outside the 4.5 hours onset-to-treatment time window.
Newborn screening (NBS) program is an important tool for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of life-long impairments. NBS is one of the strategies recommended by the World Health Organization to promote the primary prevention of congenital anomalies and the health of children with these conditions. However, NBS initiation and implementation in developing countries, especially South-East Asian and North African regions, are slow and challenging. Expanded NBS is not mandatory and has not yet been incorporated into the public healthcare system in our country. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness, and uncertain commitment from healthcare practitioners are the main challenges in establishing this program at the national level. Involvement and support from policy makers are very important to the success of the program and the benefit of the entire population.
Telemedicine in neurosurgery or teleneurosurgery has been widely used for transmission of clinical data and images throughout the country since its implementation in 2006. The impact is a reduction of patient number that need to be reviewed in the level III hospitals and an increment in the number of patients that are kept in level II hospitals for observation by the primary team. This translates to reduction of unnecessary transfer of patients and subsequently cost benefits for patients and medical providers. The main aim is to determine the amount of reduction in unnecessary transfer by the implementation of teleneurosurgery in the management of referrals to neurosurgical department in Hospital Sultanah Amninah Johor Bahru (HSAJB). Other factors associated with transfer decision are also evaluated.
There was strong evidence from studies conducted in developed countries that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is detrimental to the birth weight of newborn. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to SHS smoke during pregnancy on the weight of newborns.
Gene expression data often contain missing expression values. Therefore, several imputation methods have been applied to solve the missing values, which include k-nearest neighbour (kNN), local least squares (LLS), and Bayesian principal component analysis (BPCA). However, the effects of these imputation methods on the modelling of gene regulatory networks from gene expression data have rarely been investigated and analysed using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN).
Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity.
Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS.
Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.
This research aimed to compare the nutrient intake of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with that of normal children (without CLP) in the same age groups. The study was conducted at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 139 children, of both sexes, from two to six years of age, either with CLP (40 children) or without CLP (99 children), were selected. The CLP and non-CLP children were grouped according to age, which is a key determinant of nutrient intake. Children in subgroup I were between the ages of 2 and 4 years, the group comprising 48 normal children of mean age 39.85 months (SD 7.1), and 20 CLP children of mean age 37.05 months (SD 5.9). Children in subgroup II were those over 4 years and up to 6 years old, and the group comprised 51 normal children, of mean age 64.16 months (SD 7.9), and 20 CLP children of mean age 56.75 months (SD 9.9). A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake in subgroups I and II, using a 24 hours diet recall method. The nutrient intake of CLP children was shown to have no significant differences from that of normal children. A comparison of intake per day with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Malaysian children showed that the consumption of nutrients was inadequate in both the normal and CLP children, in both age sub-groups.