Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 750 in total

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  1. Tohid H, Ishak N, Muhammad NA, Ahmad FN, Aziz AA, Omar K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):35-47.
    PMID: 22973136 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined.
    METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed.
    RESULTS: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation.
    CONCLUSION: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; health campaigns; qualitative research; tobacco cessation; tobacco smoking
  2. Chang CT, Lee PY, Cheah WL
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):27-34.
    PMID: 22973135 MyJurnal
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
  3. Mazlan L, Suhaimi SN, Jasmin SJ, Latar NH, Adzman S, Muhammad R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):82-5.
    PMID: 22973142 MyJurnal
    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressive loss of vision due to an orbital tumour. She then underwent a craniotomy and left orbital decompression with excision of the tumour, which proved to be a metastatic carcinoma. A trucut biopsy of the right breast was then done and showed features consistent with an infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This case illustrates the possibility that chronic granulomatous mastitis could be a precursor for malignancy and the difficulty in differentiating one from the other. The possible mechanisms of development and the implications for future management are also discussed.
  4. Mawaddah A, Goh BS, Kew TY, Rozman Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):77-81.
    PMID: 22973141 MyJurnal
    Neurologic and airway compromise as a result of traumatic vascular injuries to the neck region often lead to more severe complications and thus require special consideration. Furthermore, these cases pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to healthcare providers. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old motorcyclist presenting with progressively enlarged Zone 2 neck swelling on the left side following a high impact collision. There were no symptoms or signs suggesting neurologic or laryngeal injury. Computed tomography angiogram of the neck revealed signs of an active arterial bleed. The apparent vascular injury was managed by close observation for signs of airway compromise, urgent angiogram, and selective catheter embolisation of the left lingual artery. The patient subsequently recovered without further operative exploration of the neck. At 6 months post-trauma, the neck swelling fully subsided with no complications from angioembolisation. This case illustrates the individualised treatment and multidisciplinary approach in managing such cases. We review our rationale for this diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
  5. Manaf ZA, Lee MT, Ali NH, Samynathan S, Jie YP, Ismail NH, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):56-66.
    PMID: 22973138 MyJurnal
    Tooth erosion is a growing dental problem; however, the role of diet in the aetiology of tooth erosion is unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the association between tooth erosion occurrence and the consumption of acidic foods and drinks among undergraduate university students.
  6. Bakar NF, Chen AH, Noor AR, Goh PP
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):48-55.
    PMID: 22973137 MyJurnal
    The epidemiological study of vision problems is important for developing national strategies for the prevention of visual impairment. There was a lack of information regarding vision problems among school children in East Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to compare the refractive errors and degrees of visual impairment between Native Iban and Malay school children who participated in a formal government vision loss prevention programme conducted in a rural area of Betong Division, Malaysia.
  7. Stephen DD, Siow SL
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):92-5.
    PMID: 22973144 MyJurnal
    Acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage secondary to small bowel ascariasis is extremely rare. A high level of suspicion should be maintained when dealing with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in migrants and travellers. Small bowel examination is warranted when carefully repeated upper and lower endoscopies have failed to elicit the source of bleeding. Appropriate test selection is determined by the availability of local expertise. We present a case of acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage secondary to jejunal ascariasis and a literature search on lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage associated with jejunal infestation with Ascaris.
  8. Chen AH, Jaafar SN, Noor AR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):19-26.
    PMID: 22973134 MyJurnal
    A comparison of the job satisfaction of health care professionals has not been well studied in Malaysia. This study aimed to compare the job satisfaction level among 8 groups of health care professionals in private settings, using the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS).
  9. Abdul Latiff D, Irfan M, Jafri Malin A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):1-4.
    PMID: 22973132
    As a small-although growing-journal based in Malaysia, the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) has faced several challenges in the past, such as promoting our journal as well as making sure our article bank does not go empty. However, we strive to improve ourselves by taking all means necessary to increase the quantity and, most importantly, quality of our publications, as well as to increase our journal's visibility and citability. This editorial will focus on MJMS statistics throughout 2011-where MJMS turned 18-as well as future plans for our journal.
  10. Lua PL, Wan Putri Elena WD
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):4-14.
    PMID: 22977369 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future.
  11. Leong XF, Salimon J, Mustafa MR, Jaarin K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):20-9.
    PMID: 22977371
    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The process of deep-fat frying in dietary cooking oil plays a role in the generation of free radicals. In this study, palm olein heated to 180 °C was tested for its effect on the activity of blood pressure-regulating enzymes and lipid peroxidation.

    METHODS: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into 6 groups.The first group was fed with normal rat chow as the control group, and the subsequent groups were fed with rat chow fortified with 15% weight/weight of the following: fresh palm olein, palm olein heated once, palm olein heated twice, palm olein heated 5 times, or palm olein heated 10 times. The duration of feeding was 6 months. Fatty acid analyses of oil were performed using gas chromatography. Peroxide values were determined using standard titration. Plasma was collected for biochemical analyses.

    RESULTS: Repeatedly heated palm olein increased the levels of peroxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and lipid peroxidation as well as reduced the level of heme oxygenase. Fresh palm olein and palm olein heated once had lesser effects on lipid peroxidation and a better effect on the activity of blood pressure-regulating enzymes than repeatedly heated palm olein.

    CONCLUSION: Repeatedly heated palm olein may negatively affect the activity of blood pressure-regulating enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation.

  12. Yeo L, Fan SH, Say YH
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):43-51.
    PMID: 22977374 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic anorectic neuropeptide that controls feeding behaviour and body weight. The study objective was to investigate the association of the CART prepropeptide gene (CARTPT) rs2239670 variant with obesity and its related anthropometric indicators among patients of a Malaysian health clinic in Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A total of 300 Malay/Peninsular Bumiputera, Chinese, and Indian subjects (115 males, 185 females; 163 non-obese, 137 obese) were recruited by convenience sampling, and anthropometric measurements, blood pressures, and pulse rate were taken. Genotyping was performed using AvaII polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
    RESULTS: Genotyping revealed 203 (67.7%), 90 (30.0%), and 7 (2.3%) subjects with the GG, GA, and AA genotypes, respectively, with a minor allele (A) frequency of 0.17. No significant difference in the CARTPT rs2239670 genotype and allele distribution was found between obese and non-obese subjects, and logistic regression showed no association between the mutated genotypes (GA, AA) and allele (A) with obesity, even after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Furthermore, the measurements did not differ significantly between the genotypes and alleles. No significant difference in the genotype and allele distribution was found among genders, but they were significantly different among ethnicities (P = 0.030 and P = 0.019, respectively).
    CONCLUSION: CARTPT rs2239670 is not a predictor for obesity among the Malaysian subjects in this study.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; anthropometry; cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein; genetic association study; obesity; single nucleotide polymorphism
  13. Mohamed Ismail NA, Abd Rahman R, Abd Wahab N, Muhammad R, Nor Azmi K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):65-8.
    PMID: 22977377 MyJurnal
    Pheochromocytoma during pregnancy is potentially disastrous to the mother and fetus. Its ambiguous presentation is often mistaken for pre-eclampsia, although it may imitate other problems during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and timely, appropriate management reduces possible maternal and fetal complications. We identified a case of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy; the condition was initially diagnosed as pre-eclampsia complicated with gestational diabetes. Surgical intervention via left adrenalectomy was successfully performed in the second trimester. After surgery, all of the patient's medical problems nearly subsided and she did not require further treatment. However, her fetus displayed restricted intrauterine growth, and the patient eventually had premature delivery via a caesarean section. A multidisciplinary team to identify and treat pheochromocytoma is mandatory to ensure optimal conditions for tumour removal and to anticipate any possible catastrophic events.
  14. Thevi Rajendran P, Krishnapillai V, Tamanang S, Kumari Chelliah K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):52-9.
    PMID: 22977375 MyJurnal
    Digital mammography is slowly replacing screen film mammography. In digital mammography, 2 methods are available in acquiring images: digital storage phosphor plate and full-field digital mammography. The aim of this study was to compare the image quality acquired from the 2 methods of digital mammography in the detection of breast cancer.
  15. G KK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):76-8.
    PMID: 22977380 MyJurnal
    In an infant presenting with a mass in the abdomen and non-bilious vomiting, duplication cyst needs to be considered in the list of differential diagnoses. Gastric duplication cyst is an uncommon occurrence in children. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging features. Surgical excision is safe and offers a complete cure. The literature recommends excision even in asymptomatic cases due to isolated reports of malignancy arising in the duplication cyst in later life.
  16. Sze Li S, Kenneth Kher Ti V
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):69-72.
    PMID: 22977378 MyJurnal
    Obturator hernia is a rare condition that may present in an acute or subacute setting in correlation with the degree of small-bowel obstruction. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are often non-specific. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for emaciated elderly women with small-bowel obstruction without a previous abdominal operation and a positive Howship-Romberg sign. When diagnosis is in doubt, computed tomography scan of the abdomen and the pelvis (if available) or laparotomy should be performed immediately, as high mortality rate is related to the perforation of gangrenous bowels. We present 2 cases of strangulated obturator hernia, managed differently with both open and laparoscopic approaches. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography scan is highlighted followed by a brief literature review with an emphasis placed on surgical management.
  17. Tengku Baharudin N, Jaafar H, Zainuddin Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):36-42.
    PMID: 22977373 MyJurnal
    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 10398 polymorphism is hypothesised to alter a mitochondrial subunit of the electron transfer chain and is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders and cancers.
  18. Cheah WL, Chang CT, Rosalia S, Charles LD, Yii SL, Tiong PH, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jul;18(3):33-42.
    PMID: 22135599 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City.
    METHODS: In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed.
    RESULTS: The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m(2) (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m(2) (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P < 0.01). Respondents were reported to consume more cereal compared with soft drinks and junk foods. Respondents whose fathers worked in the private sector devoted the fewest hours to media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P < 0.01). No significant difference was found between BMI and media time or snacking habits.
    CONCLUSION: This finding indicated that media time has no effect on body weight, because respondents were found to have normal weight and to consume less unhealthy food.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; behaviour; body mass index; public health; urban population
  19. Sahabudin S, Misnan R, Yadzir ZH, Mohamad J, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jul;18(3):27-32.
    PMID: 22135598 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Prawns and shrimp are a frequent cause of seafood allergy mediated by IgE antibodies. Penaeus monodon and Penaeus latisulcatus, commonly known as black tiger prawn and king prawn, respectively, are among the most frequently consumed prawns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to identify the IgE-binding proteins of these 2 prawn species.
    METHODS: Raw and boiled prawn extracts were prepared and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE-immunoblotting was then performed using sera from patients with positive skin prick tests to the raw prawn extracts.
    RESULTS: SDS-PAGE analysis of the raw extracts of both prawn species revealed 23 protein bands; the boiled extracts yielded fewer protein bands. The bands in the range of 40 to 100 kDa were sensitive to heat and therefore were not found in the boiled extracts. Immunoblot of raw extracts of black tiger prawns and king prawns yielded 14 and 11 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with molecular weights of between 15 and 200 kDa. Proteins at 36, 42, and 49 kDa were detected as the major allergens in both species of prawns. A protein of 75 kDa was also identified as a major allergen in black tiger prawns. Other potential allergens were also observed at various molecular masses.
    CONCLUSION: Proteins of 36, 42, and 49 kDa were identified as the major allergens of both species of prawns. The 36 and 42 kDa proteins are hypothesised to be tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. A high molecular weight protein of 75 kDa was found to be an additional major allergen in black tiger prawns.
    KEYWORDS: Penaeus; allergens; allergy and clinical immunology; hypersensitivity; immunoblotting; tropomyosin
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