Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Hema CR, Paulraj MP, Yaacob S, Adom AH, Nagarajan R
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:565-72.
    PMID: 21431597 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_57
    A brain machine interface (BMI) design for controlling the navigation of a power wheelchair is proposed. Real-time experiments with four able bodied subjects are carried out using the BMI-controlled wheelchair. The BMI is based on only two electrodes and operated by motor imagery of four states. A recurrent neural classifier is proposed for the classification of the four mental states. The real-time experiment results of four subjects are reported and problems emerging from asynchronous control are discussed.
  2. Hidayat W, Shakaff AY, Ahmad MN, Adom AH
    Sensors (Basel), 2010;10(5):4675-85.
    PMID: 22399899 DOI: 10.3390/s100504675
    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples.
  3. Paulraj MP, Subramaniam K, Yaccob SB, Adom AH, Hema CR
    Open Biomed Eng J, 2015;9:17-24.
    PMID: 25893012 DOI: 10.2174/1874120701509010017
    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research.
  4. Zakaria A, Shakaff AY, Masnan MJ, Saad FS, Adom AH, Ahmad MN, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(5):6023-48.
    PMID: 22778629 DOI: 10.3390/s120506023
    In recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. However, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. This paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electronic nose and an acoustic sensor. Three groups of samples each from two different harvesting times (week 7 and week 8) were evaluated by the e-nose and then followed by the acoustic sensor. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to discriminate the mango harvested at week 7 and week 8 based solely on the aroma and volatile gases released from the mangoes. However, when six different groups of different maturity and ripeness levels were combined in one classification analysis, both PCA and LDA were unable to discriminate the age difference of the Harumanis mangoes. Instead of six different groups, only four were observed using the LDA, while PCA showed only two distinct groups. By applying a low level data fusion technique on the e-nose and acoustic data, the classification for maturity and ripeness levels using LDA was improved. However, no significant improvement was observed using PCA with data fusion technique. Further work using a hybrid LDA-Competitive Learning Neural Network was performed to validate the fusion technique and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA-CLNN was also improved significantly when data fusion was applied.
  5. Zakaria A, Shakaff AY, Adom AH, Ahmad MN, Masnan MJ, Aziz AH, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2010;10(10):8782-96.
    PMID: 22163381 DOI: 10.3390/s101008782
    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together.
  6. Zakaria A, Shakaff AY, Masnan MJ, Ahmad MN, Adom AH, Jaafar MN, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(8):7799-822.
    PMID: 22164046 DOI: 10.3390/s110807799
    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement in performance was also observed using a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier when the e-nose and e-tongue data were fused.
  7. Yean CW, Wan Ahmad WK, Mustafa WA, Murugappan M, Rajamanickam Y, Adom AH, et al.
    Brain Sci, 2020 Sep 25;10(10).
    PMID: 32992930 DOI: 10.3390/brainsci10100672
    Emotion assessment in stroke patients gives meaningful information to physiotherapists to identify the appropriate method for treatment. This study was aimed to classify the emotions of stroke patients by applying bispectrum features in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. EEG signals from three groups of subjects, namely stroke patients with left brain damage (LBD), right brain damage (RBD), and normal control (NC), were analyzed for six different emotional states. The estimated bispectrum mapped in the contour plots show the different appearance of nonlinearity in the EEG signals for different emotional states. Bispectrum features were extracted from the alpha (8-13) Hz, beta (13-30) Hz and gamma (30-49) Hz bands, respectively. The k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers were used to classify the six emotions in LBD, RBD and NC. The bispectrum features showed statistical significance for all three groups. The beta frequency band was the best performing EEG frequency-sub band for emotion classification. The combination of alpha to gamma bands provides the highest classification accuracy in both KNN and PNN classifiers. Sadness emotion records the highest classification, which was 65.37% in LBD, 71.48% in RBD and 75.56% in NC groups.
  8. Thriumani R, Zakaria A, Hashim YZH, Jeffree AI, Helmy KM, Kamarudin LM, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2018 04 02;18(1):362.
    PMID: 29609557 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-018-4235-7
    BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from exhaled breath from human bodies have been proven to be a useful source of information for early lung cancer diagnosis. To date, there are still arguable information on the production and origin of significant VOCs of cancer cells. Thus, this study aims to conduct in-vitro experiments involving related cell lines to verify the capability of VOCs in providing information of the cells.

    METHOD: The performances of e-nose technology with different statistical methods to determine the best classifier were conducted and discussed. The gas sensor study has been complemented using solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For this purpose, the lung cancer cells (A549 and Calu-3) and control cell lines, breast cancer cell (MCF7) and non-cancerous lung cell (WI38VA13) were cultured in growth medium.

    RESULTS: This study successfully provided a list of possible volatile organic compounds that can be specific biomarkers for lung cancer, even at the 24th hour of cell growth. Also, the Linear Discriminant Analysis-based One versus All-Support Vector Machine classifier, is able to produce high performance in distinguishing lung cancer from breast cancer cells and normal lung cells.

    CONCLUSION: The findings in this work conclude that the specific VOC released from the cancer cells can act as the odour signature and potentially to be used as non-invasive screening of lung cancer using gas array sensor devices.

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