METHODS: EEG single trials are decomposed with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) up to the [Formula: see text] level of decomposition using a biorthogonal B-spline wavelet. The coefficients of DWT in each trial are thresholded to discard sparse wavelet coefficients, while the quality of the signal is well maintained. The remaining optimum coefficients in each trial are encoded into bitstreams using Huffman coding, and the codewords are represented as a feature of the ERP signal. The performance of this method is tested with real visual ERPs of sixty-eight subjects.
RESULTS: The proposed method significantly discards the spontaneous EEG activity, extracts the single-trial visual ERPs, represents the ERP waveform into a compact bitstream as a feature, and achieves promising results in classifying the visual objects with classification performance metrics: accuracies 93.60[Formula: see text], sensitivities 93.55[Formula: see text], specificities 94.85[Formula: see text], precisions 92.50[Formula: see text], and area under the curve (AUC) 0.93[Formula: see text] using SVM and k-NN machine learning classifiers.
CONCLUSION: The proposed method suggests that the joint use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with Huffman coding has the potential to efficiently extract ERPs from background EEG for studying evoked responses in single-trial ERPs and classifying visual stimuli. The proposed approach has O(N) time complexity and could be implemented in real-time systems, such as the brain-computer interface (BCI), where fast detection of mental events is desired to smoothly operate a machine with minds.
METHODS: In this article, we propose a new method based on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data and machine learning approach to classify the visual brain activity patterns. We acquired EEG-fMRI data simultaneously on the ten healthy human participants by showing them visual stimuli. Data fusion approach is used to merge EEG and fMRI data. Machine learning classifier is used for the classification purposes.
RESULTS: Results showed that superior classification performance has been achieved with simultaneous EEG-fMRI data as compared to the EEG and fMRI data standalone. This shows that multimodal approach improved the classification accuracy results as compared with other approaches reported in the literature.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed simultaneous EEG-fMRI approach for classifying the brain activity patterns can be helpful to predict or fully decode the brain activity patterns.