The main approach of this study is to develop high fiber bread by utilizing the cocoa-by products, namely cocoa pod husk which is incorporated into whole meal bread. The cocoa pod husk can be classified as one of the source of high fiber. The cocoa pod husk was dried and milled in order to produce the cocoa pod husk powder (CPHP). There were five different percentages of CPHP level incorporated into the high fiber bread which were formulation A (0% CPHP), formulation B (5% CPHP), formulation C (10% CPHP), formulation D (15% CPHP) and formulation E (20% CPHP). All of the samples undergone physical analysis and sensory evaluation. The incorporation of CPHP give significant effects towards bread volume and hardness attribute where the bread became denser and harder in texture as compared to the control. The color of bread crumb and crust was also changed to darker color. For the overall acceptance, formulation B has the highest mean score among the composite breads (formulation B to E) studied.
The impacts on both rheological parameters; Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity were determined. The interactions among blend’s components; xanthan gum (XG), corn starch (CS), glycerin (GL) and their relationship with both flow parameters were also investigated by using D-Optimal mixture design. Three levels of cocoa butter substitution assigned in chocolate production were at 5%, 10% and 15% level with random proportions of each component generated by Design Expert software. An appropriate mathematical model was applied to evaluate each response as a function of the proportions of the components enabling in prediction of future response by using any blend of components. As the incorporation of the blends (XG/CS/GL) in chocolate production was elevated from 5% to 15%, both parameters; viscosity and yield stress of chocolate were gradually increased, as in range 7.819 to 10.529 Pa, and 2.372 to 3.727 Pa.s, respectively. Neither binary nor ternary component-component interaction exhibited synergistic effect. Nevertheless, strongest antagonistic effect on both rheological parameters of substituted chocolate at 5% level and 10% level were respectively observed at ternary interaction region for the former, and at binary interaction area of CS:GL, closer to CS corner as for the latter. This study somehow provides ideas on how component-component interactions influence experimented response.
Impacts and relationships on physicochemical properties in dark chocolate produced from different substitution for cocoa butter by Xanthan gum (XG) and Guar gum (GG) blends were determined using D-optimal mixture design. This study involved three levels of substitution which are 5%, 10% and 15% with constrained cocoa butter content and random blend of gums. Linear design models were applied to analyze parameters including texture (hardness) measurement and melting profile of fat crystal. Products experienced undesirable raises of hardness jointly with the increment of gums incorporation across the level of cocoa butter replacement from 5% to 15%. Similar trend was also agreed with the melting behavior of products as their melting point increased with the gradual diminution of cocoa butter. After all, the replacement of cocoa butter using hydrocolloids was deemed possible as there were products whose melting point and hardness fell in the acceptable range.