• 1 Universiti Malaysia Terengganu


The impacts on both rheological parameters; Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity were determined. The interactions among blend’s components; xanthan gum (XG), corn starch (CS), glycerin (GL) and their relationship with both flow parameters were also investigated by using D-Optimal mixture design. Three levels of cocoa butter substitution assigned in chocolate production were at 5%, 10% and 15% level with random proportions of each component generated by Design Expert software. An appropriate mathematical model was applied to evaluate each response as a function of the proportions of the components enabling in prediction of future response by using any blend of components. As the incorporation of the blends (XG/CS/GL) in chocolate production was elevated from 5% to 15%, both parameters; viscosity and yield stress of chocolate were gradually increased, as in range 7.819 to 10.529 Pa, and 2.372 to 3.727 Pa.s, respectively. Neither binary nor ternary component-component interaction exhibited synergistic effect. Nevertheless, strongest antagonistic effect on both rheological parameters of substituted chocolate at 5% level and 10% level were respectively observed at ternary interaction region for the former, and at binary interaction area of CS:GL, closer to CS corner as for the latter. This study somehow provides ideas on how component-component interactions influence experimented response.