The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthan gum and carrageenan on the
oil uptake and acceptability of banana (Musa acuminate) fritters during repeated deep fat
frying. Banana namely ‘Pisang Awak’ at maturity stage 6 were peeled, cut and dipped into 3
batter formulations containing 1% carrageenan, 1% xanthan gum and a control. The bananas
were deep fried at 170±5°C for 3 minutes in 2.5L cooking oil without oil replenishment for
3 consecutive days. The moisture, oil content, texture, colour and acceptability of the banana
fritters were evaluated at first and every 10th frying cycles. Results indicated that the oil and
moisture content of fried bananas were dependent on frying cycles. The oil content increased
while the moisture decreased with increased in frying cycles. There was significant reduction
(p0.05) in terms of overall acceptance between
treated and untreated. Hence, 1% xanthan gum was effective in reducing oil absorption of
banana fritters without affecting the overall sensory acceptability
Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer with significant potential for the development of novel materials. This work aimed to prepare and characterize BC powders from nata de coco, and assess the possible enhancement of the powder properties by spray drying. Therefore, BC powders prepared by acid treatment and mechanical processing were spray-dried, and characterized according to their morphology, flowability, thermal stability, water retention capacity, and compared with commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The powders redispersibility and suspensions rheology were also evaluated. SEM showed that spray-dried BC microparticles exhibited semispherical shape and had flow rate of 4.23 g s(-1) compared with 0.52 g s(-1) for MCC. Particle size analysis demonstrated that spray-dried BC microparticles could be redispersed. TGA showed that BC samples had higher thermal stability than MCC. Water retention capacities of BC samples were greater than MCC. These findings provide new insight on the potential applications of spray-dried BC as a promising pharmaceutical excipient.
Acrylated abietic acid (acrylated AbA) and acrylated abietic acid-grafted bacterial cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel (acrylated AbA-g-BC) were prepared by a one-pot synthesis. The successful dimerization of acrylic acid (AA) and abietic acid (AbA) and grafting of the dimer onto bacterial cellulose (BC) was confirmed by 13C solid state NMR as well as FT-IR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed characteristic peaks for AbA and BC; further, there was no effect of increasing amorphous AA content on the overall crystallinity of the hydrogel. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a glass transition temperature of 80°C. Gel fraction and swelling studies gave insight into the features of the hydrogel, suggesting that it was suitable for future applications such as drug delivery. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an interesting interpenetrating network within the walls of hydrogel samples with the lowest levels of AA and gamma radiation doses. Cell viability test revealed that the synthesized hydrogel is safe for future use in biomedical applications.
The purpose of this research was to study processing variables at the laboratory and pilot scales that can affect hydration rates of xanthan gum matrices containing diclofenac sodium and the rate of drug release. Tablets from the laboratory scale and pilot scale proceedings were made by wet granulation. Swelling indices of xanthan gum formulations prepared with different amounts of water were measured in water under a magnifying lens. Granules were thermally treated in an oven at 60 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C to study the effects of elevated temperatures on drug release from xanthan gum matrices. Granules from the pilot scale formulations were bulkier compared to their laboratory scale counterparts, resulting in more porous, softer tablets. Drug release was linear from xanthan gum matrices prepared at the laboratory scale and pilot scales; however, release was faster from the pilot scales. Thermal treatment of the granules did not affect the swelling index and rate of drug release from tablets in both the pilot and laboratory scale proceedings. On the other hand, the release from both proceedings was affected by the amount of water used for granulation and the speed of the impeller during granulation. The data suggest that processing variables that affect the degree of wetness during granulation, such as increase in impeller speed and increase in amount of water used for granulation, also may affect the swelling index of xanthan gum matrices and therefore the rate of drug release.
Olive oil-entrapped diethanolamine-modified high-methoxyl pectin (DMP)-gellan gum (GG)-bionanofiller composites were developed for controlled intragastric delivery of metformin HCl (MFM). DMP had a degree of amidation of 48.7% and was characterized further by FTIR, XRD and DSC analyses. MFM-loaded composites were subsequently accomplished by green synthesis via ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross-linker. The thermal, X-ray and infrared analyses suggested an environment in the composites compatible with the drug, except certain degree of attenuation in drug's crystallinity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed almost spherical shape of the composites. Depending upon the mass ratios of GG:DMP, types of nanofiller (neusilin/bentonite/Florite) and oil inclusion, the composites exhibited variable drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, 50-85%) and extended drug release behaviours (Q8h, 69-94%) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). The optimized oil-entrapped Florite R NF/GG: DMP (1:1) composites eluted MFM via case-II transport mechanism and its drug release data was best fitted in zero-order kinetic model. The optimized formulation demonstrated excellent gastroretentive properties and substantial hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These novel hybrid matrices were thus found suitable for controlled intragastric delivery of MFM for the management of type 2 diabetes.
The aim of this work is to study the effect of hydrocolloids (guar gum, xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties and sensory evaluation of ice cream produced in order to investigate the potential of applying fermented glutinous rice (tapai pulut) as a value-added ingredient. The addition of 25% fermented glutinous rice was the most reliable amount to enhance the physical and sensory properties of ice cream when incorporating hydrocolloids. The addition of hydrocolloids significantly (p < 0.05) increased the pH, firmness, overrun, and melting rate of fermented glutinous rice ice cream. The addition of guar gum scored the highest firmness value (5403 g) followed by CMC (4630 g) and xanthan gum (3481g). Fermented glutinous rice ice cream with xanthan gum added, induced a noticeable change in overrun value (62%) while the addition of CMC decreased the melting rate compared to the control. The FTIR spectrum of fermented glutinous rice ice cream with different hydrocolloids containing carboxyl, amide and carbonyl group was appeared at 3362-3379 cm-1 , 1639-1640 cm-1 and 1026-1064 cm-1, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of xanthan gum presented great potential to improve the quality of fermented glutinous rice ice cream produced in terms of its firmness, overrun and melting rate.
The impacts on both rheological parameters; Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity were determined. The interactions among blend’s components; xanthan gum (XG), corn starch (CS), glycerin (GL) and their relationship with both flow parameters were also investigated by using D-Optimal mixture design. Three levels of cocoa butter substitution assigned in chocolate production were at 5%, 10% and 15% level with random proportions of each component generated by Design Expert software. An appropriate mathematical model was applied to evaluate each response as a function of the proportions of the components enabling in prediction of future response by using any blend of components. As the incorporation of the blends (XG/CS/GL) in chocolate production was elevated from 5% to 15%, both parameters; viscosity and yield stress of chocolate were gradually increased, as in range 7.819 to 10.529 Pa, and 2.372 to 3.727 Pa.s, respectively. Neither binary nor ternary component-component interaction exhibited synergistic effect. Nevertheless, strongest antagonistic effect on both rheological parameters of substituted chocolate at 5% level and 10% level were respectively observed at ternary interaction region for the former, and at binary interaction area of CS:GL, closer to CS corner as for the latter. This study somehow provides ideas on how component-component interactions influence experimented response.
The effects of alginate-based [sodium alginate, 0-2% (w/v), glycerol, 0-2% (w/v) and sunflower oil 0.025% (w/v)] and gellan-based [gellan, 0-1% (w/v), glycerol, 0-1% (w/v) and sunflower oil 0.025% (w/v)] edible coatings on fresh-cut pineapple were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Weight loss, firmness and respiration rate were considered as response variables. The results showed that for all response variables the RSM models were significantly (p0.05) difference between predicted and experimental values. The overall optimum region predicted by RSM indicated that alginate and gellan-based coatings containing 1.29% (w/v) sodium alginate, 1.16% (w/v) glycerol and 0.56% (w/v) gellan gum, 0.89% (w/v) glycerol were optimized formulations respectively.
Impacts and relationships on physicochemical properties in dark chocolate produced from different substitution for cocoa butter by Xanthan gum (XG) and Guar gum (GG) blends were determined using D-optimal mixture design. This study involved three levels of substitution which are 5%, 10% and 15% with constrained cocoa butter content and random blend of gums. Linear design models were applied to analyze parameters including texture (hardness) measurement and melting profile of fat crystal. Products experienced undesirable raises of hardness jointly with the increment of gums incorporation across the level of cocoa butter replacement from 5% to 15%. Similar trend was also agreed with the melting behavior of products as their melting point increased with the gradual diminution of cocoa butter. After all, the replacement of cocoa butter using hydrocolloids was deemed possible as there were products whose melting point and hardness fell in the acceptable range.
Dough mixing and thermal properties including the pasting profiles of various commercial wheat flour (WF)-banana pseudostem flour (BP)-hydrocolloid blends were determined using a farinograph, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a rapid-visco analyser (RVA). The prepared blends were WF, WF substituted with 10% BP (10BP) and 10BP with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (10BPX and 10BPC, respectively). The dough of 10BP and the doughs containing XG or CMC reduced stability and breakdown time compared with the WF dough. All dough containing BP demonstrated greater water absorption and mixing tolerance index values than the WF dough. The substitution of 10% BP into WF and the addition of hydrocolloids did not significantly affect the conclusion temperature (Tc) of the mixture, but did increased the onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp) and decreased the gelatinisation enthalpy change (ΔHg) of the blends. Samples of 10BP, 10BPX and 10BPC significantly decreased (p
Starch and hydrocolloids were often used together in food industry to modify the rheological properties with the aim to enhance the starch tolerance to processing conditions. As such, the rheological properties of xanthan gum (XG), carrageenan, high (HMP) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP), with native corn starch (NCS) and modified corn starch (MCS) at different temperature were evaluated in this study. The flow behavior index (n) of corn starch-hydrocolloid mixtures were observed in the range from 0.160 to 0.604 where indicated the shear thinning behavior. The addition of hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity of the starch system. NCS mixtures showed consistency index (K) and apparent viscosities (na,100) decreased with increase in the temperature. The addition of XG and carrageenan increased the storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli. Among the hydrocolloids, the XG addition to the NCS exhibited superior viscoelastic properties as evidenced by the highest G’ and lowest tan δ values. XG was observed capable to increase while pectin reduced the solid-like starch system. This result provides pragmatic data for food engineer in process design and food product development by minimizing the cost of trial and error.
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of glycerol concentration on mechanical
and physical properties of gellan gum (GG) biofilm. The biofilm was prepared using solvent
casting method and the effective glycerol concentration was found to be within 30-50%
w/w (based on GG weight). At 60 and 70 w/w% of glycerol, the films started to distort
because the films was flexible and brittle. As glycerol concentration was increased the tensile
strength (TS) and Youngs modulus (E) of films decreased. Somehow, elongation at break
(EAB), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and swelling of films was increased. Glycerol
plasticized GG biofilm was thermally stable and flexible, proposed its can be exploited as
film-forming material and with optimized glycerol concentration it has good mechanical and
physical properties for edible biofilm.
The gastroretentive dosage form of famotidine was modified using tamarind seed powders to prolong the gastric retention time. Tamarind seeds were used in two different forms having different swelling and gelling properties: with husk (TSP) or without husk (TKP). TKP (TKP1 to TKP 6) and TSP (TSP1 to TSP 6) series were prepared using tamarind powder:xanthan in the ratios of 5:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3, 1:4, 0:5, respectively. The matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method and evaluated for pharmacopoeial requirements. TKP2 was the optimum formulation as it had a short floating lag time (FLT<30 s) and more than 98.5% drug release in 12 h. The dissolution data were fitted to popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release, and the optimum formulation showed a predominant first order release and diffusion mechanism. It was concluded that the TKP2 prepared using tamarind kernel powder:xanthan (4:1) was the optimum formulation with shortest floating lag time and more than 90% release in the determined period of time.
Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.
The capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen (ViCPS) is an essential virulence factor and also a protective antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. A random 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library was used to identify mimotopes (epitope analogues) of this antigen by panning against a ViCPS-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) ATVi. Approximately 75% of the phage clones selected in the fourth round carried the peptide sequence TSHHDSHGLHRV, and the rest of the clones harbored ENHSPVNIAHKL and other related sequences. These two sequences were also obtained in a similar panning process by using pooled sera from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of typhoid fever, suggesting they mimic immunodominant epitopes of ViCPS antigens. Binding of MAb ATVi to the mimotopes was specifically blocked by ViCPS, indicating that they interact with the same binding site (paratope) of the MAb. Data and reagents generated in this study have important implications for the development of peptide-base diagnostic tests and peptide vaccines and may also provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of typhoid fever.
A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.
Gellan gum based floating beads containing clarithromycin (FBC) were prepared by iontotropic gelation method for stomach-specific drug delivery against Helicobacter pylori. The scanning electron microscope photograph indicated that prepared beads were spherical in shape with rough outer surface. Formulation variables such as concentrations of gellan, calcium carbonate and drug loading influenced the in vitro drug release characteristics of prepared beads. In vitro release rate of clarithromycin was corrected using first order degradation rate constant which is degraded significantly during the release study in simulated gastric fluid pH 2.0. Further, the absence of interactions between drug and polymer was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro drug release data with different kinetic equations revealed matrix diffusion mechanism. Prepared beads showed good anti-microbial activity against isolated H. pylori strain. The prepared beads have shown good in vivo floating efficiency in rabbit stomach. The stability studies of beads did not show any significant changes after storage of beads at 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity for 6 months. The preliminary results from this study suggest that floating beads of gellan can be used to incorporate antibiotics like clarithromycin and may be effective when administered locally in the stomach against H. pylori.
A locally isolated Acinetobacter sp. Strain AQ5NOL 1 was encapsulated in gellan gum and its ability to degrade phenol was compared with the free cells. Optimal phenol degradation was achieved at gellan gum concentration of 0.75% (w/v), bead size of 3 mm diameter (estimated surface area of 28.26 mm(2)) and bead number of 300 per 100 ml medium. At phenol concentration of 100 mg l(-1), both free and immobilized bacteria exhibited similar rates of phenol degradation but at higher phenol concentrations, the immobilized bacteria exhibited a higher rate of degradation of phenol. The immobilized cells completely degrade phenol within 108, 216 and 240 h at 1,100, 1,500 and 1,900 mg l(-1) phenol, respectively, whereas free cells took 240 h to completely degrade phenol at 1,100 mg l(-1). However, the free cells were unable to completely degrade phenol at higher concentrations. Overall, the rates of phenol degradation by both immobilized and free bacteria decreased gradually as the phenol concentration was increased. The immobilized cells showed no loss in phenol degrading activity after being used repeatedly for 45 cycles of 18 h cycle. However, phenol degrading activity of the immobilized bacteria experienced 10 and 38% losses after the 46 and 47th cycles, respectively. The study has shown an increased efficiency of phenol degradation when the cells are encapsulated in gellan gum.