Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing bisoprolol as the sole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Bisoprolol is classified as a Class I API according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In addition to the BCS class, its therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, and reported BE/bioavailability problems are taken into consideration. Qualitative compositions of IR tablet dosage forms of bisoprolol with a marketing authorization (MA) in ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) countries are tabulated. It was inferred that these tablets had been demonstrated to be bioequivalent to the innovator product. No reports of failure to meet BE standards have been made in the open literature. On the basis of all these pieces of evidence, a biowaiver can currently be recommended for bisoprolol fumarate IR dosage forms if (1) the test product contains only excipients that are well known, and used in normal amounts, for example, those tabulated for products with MA in ICH countries and (2) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving with similarity of the dissolution profiles demonstrated at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8.
The relationship of high and low molecular weight mannuronic acid (M)- and guluronic acid (G)-rich alginate nanoparticles as oral insulin carrier was elucidated. Nanoparticles were prepared through ionotropic gelation using Ca(2+) , and then in vitro physicochemical attributes and in vivo antidiabetic characteristics were examined. The alginate nanoparticles had insulin release retarded when the matrices had high alginate-to-insulin ratio or strong alginate-insulin interaction via OH moiety. High molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles were characterized by assemblies of long polymer chains that enabled insulin encapsulation with weaker polymer-drug interaction than nanoparticles prepared from other alginate grades. They were able to encapsulate and yet release and have insulin absorbed into systemic circulation, thereby lowering rat blood glucose. High molecular weight G- and low molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles showed remarkable polymer-insulin interaction. This retarded the drug release and negated its absorption. Blood glucose lowering was, however, demonstrated in vivo with insulin-free matrices of these nanoparticles because of the strong alginate-glucose binding that led to intestinal glucose retention. Alginate nanoparticles can be used as oral insulin carrier or glucose binder in the treatment of diabetes as a function of its chemical composition. High molecular weight M-rich alginate nanoparticles are a suitable vehicle for future development into oral insulin carrier.
α-Mangostin is an oxygenated heterocyclic xanthone with remarkable pharmacological properties, but poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability hinder its therapeutic application. This study sought to improve the compound's solubility and study the mechanism underlying solubility enhancement. Solid dispersions of α-mangostin were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by solvent evaporation method and showed substantial enhancement of α-mangostin's solubility from 0.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 2743 ± 11 μg/mL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated interaction between α-mangostin and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed self-assembly of round anionic nanomicelles with particle size in the range 99-127 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated conversion of α-mangostin from crystalline into amorphous state, and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of highly porous powder. Studies using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed that the critical micellar concentration is about 77.4 ± 4 μg/mL. Cellular uptake of nanomicelles was found to be mediated via endocytosis and indicated intracellular delivery of α-mangostin associated with potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration of 8.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL). Improved solubility, self-assembly of nanomicelles, and intracellular delivery through endocytosis may enhance the pharmacological properties of α-mangostin, particularly antitumor efficacy.
Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and loss of multiparticulate characteristics such as aggregation in acidic medium, thereby promoting oral dose dumping. This study aimed to design sustained-release dispersible alginate pellets through rapid in situ matrix dispersion and cross-linking by calcium salts during dissolution. Pellets made of alginate and calcium salts were prepared using a solvent-free melt pelletization technique that prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed such a reaction to occur only in dissolution phase. Drug release was remarkably retarded in acidic medium when pellets were formulated with water-soluble calcium acetate instead of acid-soluble calcium carbonate. Different from calcium salt-free and calcium carbonate-loaded matrices that aggregated or underwent gradual erosion, rapid in situ solvation of calcium acetate in pellets during dissolution resulted in burst of gas bubbles, fast pellet breakup, and dispersion. The dispersed fragments, though exhibiting a larger specific surface area for drug dissolution than intact matrix, were rapidly cross-linked by Ca(2+) from calcium acetate and had drug release retarded till a change in medium pH from 1.2 to 6.8. Being dispersible and pH-dependent in drug dissolution, these pellets are useful as multiparticulate intestinal-specific drug carrier without exhibiting dose dumping tendency of a "single-unit-like" system via pellet aggregation.
Conventional fluid-bed and immersion film coating of hydrophilic zinc pectinate pellets by hydrophobic ethylcellulose is met with fast drug release. This study explored in situ intracapsular pellet coating for colon-specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The solid coating powder constituted ethylcellulose and pectin in weight ratios of 11:0 to 2:9. Its weight ratio to pellets varied between 2:3 and 3:2. Pectin was used as excipient of core pellets and coating powder in view of its potential use in colon cancer treatment. Delayed 5-FU release and core pectin dissolution were attainable when the weight ratio of solid coating powder to pellets was kept at 3:2, and weight ratio of ethylcellulose and pectin in coating powder was kept at 8:3 with particle size of ethylcellulose reduced to 22 μm. In situ intracapsular wetting of pectin coat by dissolution medium resulted in the formation of ethylcellulose plug interconnecting with pellets through the binding action of pectin. Less than 25% of drug was released at the upper gastrointestinal tract. The majority of drug was released upon prolonged dissolution and in response to colonic enzyme pectinase, which digested core pellets.
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) microcapsules were formulated to deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) to the intestines. The microcapsules were characterized and were found to have an average diameter of 44.33 ± 30.22 μm, and were observed to be spherical with smooth surface. The method to extract pDNA from CAP was modified to study the release profile of the pDNA. The encapsulated pDNA was found to be stable. Exposure to the acidic and basic pH conditions, which simulates the pH environment in the stomach and the intestines, showed that the release occurred in a stable manner in the former, whereas it was robust in the latter. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the microcapsules were low but the CAP recovery yield was high which indicates that the microcapsules were efficiently formed but the loading of pDNA can be improved. In vitro transfection study in 293FT cells showed that there was a significant percentage of green-fluorescent-protein-positive cells as a result of efficient transfection from CAP-encapsulated pDNA. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice indicate that DNA was released at the stomach and intestinal regions. CAP microcapsules loaded with pDNA, as described in this study, may be useful for potential gene delivery to the intestines for prophylactic or therapeutic measures for gastrointestinal diseases.
Gelucire 50/13 alone and solid dispersions in this material containing two model drugs (10% w/w caffeine and paracetamol) have been studied with a view to establishing the mechanism underpinning changes in drug-release characteristics as a function of storage time and temperature. The lipid systems were fabricated into tablets and stored for up to 180 days at temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C. The dispersions were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, and dissolution testing. DSC studies indicated that the Gelucire 50/13 exists in two principal melting forms (melting points 38 and 43 degrees C) that undergo transformation to the higher melting form on storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the systems exhibit "blooming," with crystal formation on the surface being apparent on storage at both temperatures. The dissolution rate increased on storage, with the effect being particularly marked at higher storage temperatures and for the paracetamol systems. However, whereas these changes corresponded well to those seen for the morphology, the correlation between the changes in dissolution and those of the DSC profiles was poor. The study has suggested a novel explanation for the storage instability of Gelucire 50/13 whereby the change in dissolution is associated not with molecular rearrangement as such but with the gross distribution of the constituent components, this in turn altering the physical integrity of the lipid bases.
The aim of this study to administer hydrocortisone (HC) percutaneously in the form of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to alleviate its transcutaneous absorption, and to derive additional wound-healing benefits of chitosan. HC-loaded NPs had varied particle sizes, zeta potentials, and entrapment efficiencies, when drug-to-polymer mass ratios increased from 1:1 to 1:8. Ex vivo permeation analysis showed that the nanoparticulate formulation of HC significantly reduced corresponding flux [∼24 µg/(cm(2) h)] and permeation coefficient (∼4.8 × 10(-3) cm/h) of HC across the full thickness NC/Nga mouse skin. The nanoparticulate formulation also exhibited a higher epidermal (1610 ± 42 µg/g of skin) and dermal (910 ± 46 µg/g of skin) accumulation of HC than those associated with control groups. An in vivo assessment using an NC/Nga mouse model further revealed that mice treated with the nanoparticulate system efficiently controlled transepidermal water loss [15 ± 2 g/(m(2) h)], erythema intensity (232 ± 12), dermatitis index (mild), and thickness of skin (456 ± 27 µm). Taken together, histopathological examination predicted that the nanoparticulate system showed a proficient anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity against atopic dermatitic (AD) lesions. Our results strongly suggest that HC-loaded NPs have promising potential for topical/transdermal delivery of glucocorticoids in the treatment of AD.
Hydrocortisone (HC) is a topical glucocorticoid for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD); the local as well as systemic side effects limit its use. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol present in olive oil that has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. HC-HT coloaded chitosan nanoparticles (HC-HT CSNPs) were therefore developed to improve the efficacy against AD. In this study, HC-HT CSNPs of 235 ± 9 nm in size and with zeta potential +39.2 ± 1.6 mV were incorporated into aqueous cream (vehicle) and investigated for acute dermal toxicity, dermal irritation, and repeated dose toxicity using albino Wistar rats. HC-HT CSNPs exhibited LD50 > 125 mg/body surface area of active, which is 100-fold higher than the normal human dose of HC. Compared with the commercial formulation, 0.5 g of HC-HT CSNPs did not cause skin irritation, as measured by Tewameter®, Mexameter®, and as observed visually. Moreover, no-observed-adverse-effect level was observed with respect to body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, blood hematological and biochemical, urinalysis, and histopathological parameters at a dose of 1000 mg/body surface area per day of HC-HT CSNPs for 28 days. This in vivo study demonstrated that nanoencapsulation significantly reduced the toxic effects of HC and this should allow further clinical investigations.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices loaded with doxycycline were produced by rapidly cooling suspensions of the drug powder in PCL solution in acetone. Drug loadings of 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of the PCL content were achieved. Exposure of doxycycline powder to matrix processing conditions in the absence of PCL revealed an endothermic peak at 65°C with the main peak at 167°C, suggesting solvatomorph formation. Rapid "burst release" of 24%-32% was measured within 24 h when matrices were immersed in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) at 37°C, because of the presence of drug at or close to the matrix surface, which is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Gradual release of 66%-76% of the drug content occurred over the following 14 days. SVF containing doxycycline released from drug-loaded PCL matrices retained 81%-90% antimicrobial activity compared with the nonformulated drug. The concentrations of doxycycline predicted to be released into vaginal fluid from a PCL matrix in the form of an intravaginal ring would be sufficient to kill Neisseria gonorrhoea and many other pathogens. These results indicate that PCL may be a suitable polymer for controlled intravaginal delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Nanoparticle-based hyperthermia is an effective therapeutic approach that allows time- and site-specific treatment with minimized off-site effects. The recent advances in materials science have led to design a diversity of thermosensitive nanostructures that exhibit different mechanisms of thermal response to the external stimuli. This article aims to provide an extensive review of the various triggering mechanisms in the nanostructures used as adjuvants to hyperthermia modalities. Understanding the differences between various mechanisms of thermal response in these nanostructures could help researchers in the selection of appropriate materials for each experimental and clinical condition as well as to address the current shortcomings of these mechanisms with improved material design.
A lamellar liquid crystalline region was identified in a typical skin lotion formulation system composed of a mixture of isostearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) at 65:35 (w/w), decane, and water (the temperature was controlled at 30 degrees C). The interlayer spacings were determined by a small-angle X-ray diffraction technique. Incorporation of a natural dye, curcumin, resulted in lower interlayer spacings and higher penetration of water into the layered structure. However, the higher penetration of water was not apparent at all compositions of isostearic acid:TEA, decane, and water.
The hydroxide ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of securinine involves the ring opening of the lactone moiety. The rate of hydrolysis is insensitive to the ionic strength. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants reveal a decrease of approximately 4-fold due to the increase in the MeCN content from 4 to 50% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvent. The temperature dependence of the rate of hydrolysis follows the Eyring equation, which yields delta H* and delta S* as 11.0 kcal mol-1 and -34.5 cal deg-1 mol-1, respectively. The hydroxyl carboxylate product of the alkaline hydrolysis of securinine is shown to undergo cyclization in acidic medium to yield securinine. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants for cyclization increase linearly with an increase in [H+]. The change in the content of MeCN from 3.8 to 47.2% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvents does not show an effect on the rate of the cyclization reaction. The most plausible mechanisms for alkaline hydrolysis and acid cyclization reactions are also discussed.
Phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions were prepared spontaneously using the phase inversion method from a mixture of novel biosourced alkyds and Tween 80 surfactant. Exposure of human adult keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) for 48 h to alkyd nanoemulsions producing phenytoin concentrations of 3.125-200 μg/mL resulted in relative cell viability readings using tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide of 100% confirming nontoxicity and suggesting cell proliferation activity. Phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions generally resulted in higher mean cell viability compared with equivalent concentration of phenytoin solutions, suggesting that the nanoemulsions provided a controlled-release property that maintained the optimum phenytoin level for keratinocyte growth. HaCaT cell proliferation, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine uptake, was found to increase following exposure to increasing phenytoin concentration from 25 to 50 μg/mL in solution or encapsulated in nanoemulsions but declined at a drug concentration of 100 μg/mL. An in vitro cell monolayer wound scratch assay revealed that phenytoin solution or nanoemulsions producing 50 μg/mL phenytoin concentration resulted in 75%-82% "scratch closure" after 36 h, similar to medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum as a cell growth promoter. These findings indicate that phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions show potential for promoting topical wound healing through enhanced proliferation of epidermal cells.
Prostate-specific antigen is currently the only protein biomarker routinely used as a diagnostic tool for early detection and treatment monitoring of prostate cancer. However, it remains questionable whether prostate-specific antigen-based screening can sensitively and selectively identify the presence and progression status of primary and metastatic prostate cancers. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify potential biomarker candidates in the secretome of primary and metastatic prostate cancer cells by using a combination of global and targeted proteomics. Quantitative comparisons among secretome proteins derived from androgen-responsive primary cancer cells (P-22Rv1), androgen-irresponsive bone metastatic cancer cells (M-PC-3), and noncancerous prostate cells (N-PNT2) were performed using 2-dimensional image-converted analysis of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry followed by in silico selection selected reaction monitoring analysis. Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 13-like, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2, and hepatocyte growth factor were identified as highly secreted proteins from P-22Rv1 cells compared with N-PNT2 cells. Prostate-associated microseminoprotein, proactivator polypeptide, collagen-α-1 (VI) chain, and neuropilin-1 were identified as predominantly secreted proteins in M-PC-3 cells compared with N-PNT2 cells. These proteins in biological fluids are considered to be candidate biomarkers of primary and/or metastatic prostate cancer.
Being an emerging transdermal delivery tool, nanoemulgel, has proved to show surprising upshots for the lipophilic drugs over other formulations. This lipophilic nature of majority of the newer drugs developed in this modern era resulting in poor oral bioavailability, erratic absorption, and pharmacokinetic variations. Therefore, this novel transdermal delivery system has been proved to be advantageous over other oral and topical drug delivery to avoid such disturbances. These nanoemulgels are basically oil-in-water nanoemulsions gelled with the use of some gelling agent in it. This gel phase in the formulation is nongreasy, which favors user compliance and stabilizes the formulation through reduction in surface as well as interfacial tension. Simultaneously, it can be targeted more specifically to the site of action and can avoid first-pass metabolism and relieve the user from gastric/systemic incompatibilities. This brief review is focused on nanoemulgel as a better topical drug delivery system including its components screening, formulation method, and recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advancement in research studies carried out by the scientists all over the world. Therefore, at the end of this survey it could be inferred that nanoemulgel can be a better and effective drug delivery tool for the topical system.
Ivermectin has demonstrated many successes in the treatment of a range of nematode infections. Considering the increase in malaria resistance, attention has turned toward ivermectin as a candidate for repurposing for malaria. This study developed and validated an ivermectin physiology-based pharmacokinetic model in healthy adults (20-50 years), pediatric (3-5 years/15-25 kg) subjects, and a representative adult malaria population group (Thailand). Dosing optimization demonstrating a twice-daily dose for 3- or 5-day regimens would provide a time above the LC50 of more than 7 days for adult and pediatric subjects. Furthermore, to address the occurrence of CYP450 induction that is often encountered with antiretroviral agents, simulated drug-drug interaction studies with efavirenz highlighted that a 1-mg/kg once-daily dose for 5 days would counteract the increased ivermectin hepatic clearance and enable a time above LC50 of 138.8 h in adults and 141.2 h in pediatric subjects. It was also demonstrated that dosage regimen design would require consideration of the age-weight geographical relationship of the subjects, with a dosage regimen for a representative Thailand population group requiring at least a single daily dose for 5 days to maintain ivermectin plasma concentrations and a time above LC50 similar to that in healthy adults.
In this study, we developed positively charged liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCN) coated with chitosan (CHI) to enhance the skin permeation and distribution of 5α-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. LCN and surface-modified LCN (CHI-LCN) were prepared by ultrasonication method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation and retention were studied using porcine abdominal skin and mice skin using the Franz diffusion cell. Skin distribution and cellular uptake of LCN and CHI-LCN were also investigated. The particle size and surface charge were 244.9 ± 2.1 nm and -19.2 ± 1.1 mV, respectively, for LCNs and 300.0 ± 7.6 nm and 24.7 ± 2.4 mV, respectively, for CHI-LCN. The permeation of 5α-reductase inhibitors was significantly greater with CHI-LCN compared with LCN, whereas there was no significant difference observed in the skin distribution. In fluorescence studies, fluorescence intensity was higher for CHI-LCNs throughout the skin, whereas more intense fluorescence was seen only in the epidermis layer for LCN. CHI-LCN showed greater cellular uptake than LCN, resulting in internalization of 98.5 ± 1.9% of nanoparticles into human keratinocyte cells. In conclusion, surface modification of LCN with CHI is a promising strategy for increasing skin permeation of 5α-reductase inhibitors for topical delivery.
The potential of the antimalarial piperaquine and its metabolites to inhibit CYP3A was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. CYP3A activity was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as the rate of 1'-hydroxymidazolam formation. Piperaquine was found to be a reversible, potent inhibitor of CYP3A with the following parameter estimates (%CV): IC50 = 0.76 μM (29), Ki = 0.68 μM (29). In addition, piperaquine acted as a time-dependent inhibitor with IC50 declining to 0.32 μM (28) during 30-min pre-incubation. Time-dependent inhibitor estimates were kinact = 0.024 min-1 (30) and KI = 1.63 μM (17). Metabolite M2 was a highly potent reversible inhibitor with estimated IC50 and Ki values of 0.057 μM (17) and 0.043 μM (3), respectively. M1 and M5 metabolites did not show any inhibitory properties within the limits of assay used. Average (95th percentile) simulated in vivo areas under the curve of midazolam increased 2.2-fold (3.7-fold) on the third which is the last day of piperaquine dosing, whereas for its metabolite M2, areas under the curve of midazolam increased 7.7-fold (13-fold).
The study aims to characterize the structural relaxation times of quench-cooled co-amorphous systems using Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) and to correlate the relaxation data with the onset of crystallization. Comparison was also made between the relaxation times obtained by KWW and the width of glass transition temperature (ΔTg) methods (simple and quick). Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy were used to characterize the systems. Results showed that co-amorphous systems yielded a single Tg and ΔCp, suggesting the binary mixtures exist as a single amorphous phase. A narrow step change at Tg indicates the systems were fragile glasses. In co-amorphous nap-indo and para-indo, experimental Tgs were in good agreement with the predicted Tg. However, the Tg of co-amorphous nap-cim and indo-cim were 20°C higher than the predicted Tg, possibly due to stronger molecular interactions. Structural relaxation times below the experimental Tg were successfully characterized using the KWW and ΔTg methods. The comparison plot showed that KWW data are directly proportional to the ½ power of ΔTg data, after adjusting for a small offset. A moderate positive correlation was observed between the onset of crystallization and the KWW data. Structural relaxation times may be useful predictor of physical stability of co-amorphous systems.