One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil's surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail.
In this paper, the problem of laminar viscous flow in a semi-porous channel in the presence of transverse magnetic field is studied. The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is employed to approximate the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The influence of the Hartmann number (Ha) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the flow was investigated. The results of the OHAM were compared with homotopy analysis method (HAM) and variation iteration method (VIM) results.
According to the classical theory of viscoelasticity, a linear viscoelastic (LVE) function can be converted into another viscoelastic function even though they emphasize different information. In this study, dynamic tests were conducted on different conventional penetration grade bitumens using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) in the LVE region. The results showed that the dynamic data in the frequency domain can be converted into the time domain functions using a numerical technique. This was done with the aid of the non-linear regularization (NLREG) computer program. The NLREG software is a computer program for solving nonlinear ill-posed problem and is based on non-linear Tikhonov regularization method. The use of data interconversion equation is found suitable for converting from the frequency domain into the time domain of conventional penetration grade bitumens.
In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest.
Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.
Extract of mengkudu was heated using a bench-top tube heat exchanger at 30, 50, 70 and 90 o C for 0, 5, 10 and 15 min residence time. The treated mengkudu extract was then measured for pH, L * , a * , b * color parameters, clarity, viscosity and total polyphenol content. Results show that heating using temperature of 30 to 90 o C for 5 to 15 mins significantly (p
Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified sago starch was prepared in order to improve the emulsification properties of native starch. In the present study, the major factors affecting esterification were investigated with respect to OSA concentration, pH and reaction time using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to obtain the highest value of degree of substitution (DS). Results shown that the optimum conditions for OSA concentration, pH and reaction time were 5.00%, pH 7.20 and 9.65 h, respectively. At optimum condition, the esterification of sago starch with OSA resulted in DS value of 0.0120. The DS increased linearly with the increase in amount of OSA, whilst pH and reaction time show a curvature trend on the value of DS. The value of DS was found to be significantly affected by all the three variables. The experimental values under optimum condition were in good consistent with the predicted values (0.0131), which suggested that the optimisation by RSM is more efficient process than conventional optimisation.
The emulsifying properties of extracted okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) mucilage at different maturity indices (1, 2 and 3) were studied. The okra mucilage was prepared using water extraction method and was determined their viscosity at different temperature (10, 30, 50 and 70°C), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), as well as their emulsion capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES). Results found that okra with maturity index 2 produced the highest percentage yield of mucilage (1.46%) and followed by index 1 (1.10%) and index 3 (0.31%) (p
In this paper, the problem of free convection boundary layer flow on a horizontal circular cylinder in a nanofluid with viscous dissipation and constant wall temperature is investigated. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using finite difference scheme namely the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions were obtained for the reduced skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles.The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and Eckert number were analyzed and discussed.
This paper reports the effects of glyceryl ether specifically mono-tert-butoxypropanediol on oil in water emulsion system.
Based on 12 HLB value, screening for stable emulsions was carried out without the presence of glyceryl ether. A stable
emulsion was used as a control. Then the effects of glyceryl ether on the emulsion system were investigated. The emulsions
prepared were analyzed for stability, viscosity, pH value, particle size, in vitro dermal irritation potential, in vitro ocular
irritation potential and also moisturizing property. The incorporation of glycerol in the emulsion system was also done
for comparison. Emulsions with glyceryl ether showed lower viscosity values than emulsions with glycerol. Furthermore,
the emulsions also exhibited moisturizing property compared to the control emulsion. Glyceryl ether is suitable to be
used in cosmetic products which require reduced viscosity but retain its skin hydration property.
Analyzed the effects of thermal radiation, chemical reaction, heat gener-
ation/absorption, magnetic and electric fields on unsteady flow and heat transfer of
nanofluid. The transport equations used passively controlled. A similarity solution is
employed to transformed the governing equations from partial differential equations to
a set of ordinary differential equations, and then solve using Keller box method. It was
found that the temperature is a decreasing function with the thermal stratification due to
the fact the density of the fluid in the lower vicinity is much higher compared to the upper
region, whereas the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and heat generation enhanced
the nanofluid temperature and thermal layer thickness.
A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation-point flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid over a permeable shrinking sheet has been studied. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The resulting differential equations are then solved numerically using an implicit finite difference method. It is found that the solutions are non-unique for weak magnetic field, strong suction and large velocity ratio between free stream velocity and wall shrinking velocity.
We study and discuss the effect of thermal slip on steady free convection flow of a viscous, incompressible micropolar fluid past a vertical moving plate in a saturated porous medium. The effect of viscous dissipation is incorporated in the energy equation. The associated partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations generated by a group method and this system is then solved numerically. The effect of controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, angular velocity and temperature as well as friction factor, couple stress factor and heat transfer rate are shown graphically and discussed in detail. It is found that the dimensional velocity and angular velocity decrease whilst the temperature increases with velocity slip parameter. It is further found that thermal slip decreases the dimensional velocity and temperature but increases the dimensional angular velocity. Data from published work and our results are found to be in good agreement.
This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.
Lipase-catalyzed production of palm esters by alcoholysis of palm oil with oleyl alcohol in n-hexane was performed in 2L stirred-tank reactor (STR). Investigation on the performance of reactor operation was carried out in batch mode STR with single impeller mounted on the centrally located shaft. Rushton turbine (RT) impellers provide the highest reaction yield (95.8%) at lower agitation speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil (AL-H) and 2-bladed elephant ear (EE) impellers. Homogenous enzyme particles suspension was obtained at 250 rpm by using RT impeller. At higher impeller speed, the shear effect on the enzyme particles caused by agitation has decreased the reaction performance. Palm esters reaction mixture in STR follows Newtons' law due to the linear relation between the shear stress (tau) and shear rate (dupsilon/dy). High stability of Lipozyme RM IM was observed as shown by its ability to be repeatedly used to give high percentage yield (79%) of palm esters even after 15 cycles of reaction. The process was successfully scale-up to 75 L STR (50 L working volume) based on a constant impeller tip speed approach, which gave the yield of 97.2% after 5h reaction time.
The present project investigated the potential of utilizing corncobs and sugar cane waste as viscosivier in drilling fluid. For this purpose, the synthetic-based drilling fluid, Sarapar 147, was used as the base fluid. Both the materials were subjected to pre-treatment of drying, dehumidifying, grinding and sieving process prior to rheological tests. The rheological tests were conducted in accordance with the API 13B specifications to measure mud density, plastic viscosity, yield point, 10-second and 10-minute gel strength. The study found that plastic viscosity and yield point had a direct relationship with the amount of materials added. To drill fluid additive with corn cobs, the density, plastic viscosity and yield point were increased when the amount of additives were increased. Based on these experiments, both additives were found to have the potential to be used as additive in drilling fluid. In particular, they were able to improve its rheological properties by increasing the density, plastic viscosity and yield point. The suitable concentration for the corn cobs and sugar cane is 6.45 lb/bbl and 9.43 lb/bbl, respectively.
A study of kaolin addition in polypropylene (PP-kaolin) melt was carried out to characterize its flow behaviour and viscoelasticity at different temperatures. The compound of 20 wt% kaolin was prepared by melt mixing using two roll-mill heated at 185°C, while the compounded composites were put through a single screw extruder to evaluate its melt flow properties. The prepared PPKaolin composites exhibited a shear thinning behaviour and appeared to be strongly dependent on temperature. Moreover, it was also found that the power law index was constantly increased as the temperature increased. Meanwhile, a similar trend was observed for swelling ratio, whereby it also increased with increasing temperature. It was also observed that changes in the die temperatures would result in the formation of obvious bubble like surface morphology, and it became more prominent when the temperature was lowered.
Physical properties of ripe banana flour were studied in Cavendish and Dream banana, in order to distinguish the two varieties. Flour was analyzed for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity
(WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80 °C, color values L*, a* and b*, back extrusion force
and viscosity. Physical properties data were analyzed by cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA). CA showed that the two types of flour were different in terms of selected physical properties. DA indicated that WHC at 60 °C was the main contributor in discriminating the two types of flour.