The impacts on both rheological parameters; Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity were determined. The interactions among blend’s components; xanthan gum (XG), corn starch (CS), glycerin (GL) and their relationship with both flow parameters were also investigated by using D-Optimal mixture design. Three levels of cocoa butter substitution assigned in chocolate production were at 5%, 10% and 15% level with random proportions of each component generated by Design Expert software. An appropriate mathematical model was applied to evaluate each response as a function of the proportions of the components enabling in prediction of future response by using any blend of components. As the incorporation of the blends (XG/CS/GL) in chocolate production was elevated from 5% to 15%, both parameters; viscosity and yield stress of chocolate were gradually increased, as in range 7.819 to 10.529 Pa, and 2.372 to 3.727 Pa.s, respectively. Neither binary nor ternary component-component interaction exhibited synergistic effect. Nevertheless, strongest antagonistic effect on both rheological parameters of substituted chocolate at 5% level and 10% level were respectively observed at ternary interaction region for the former, and at binary interaction area of CS:GL, closer to CS corner as for the latter. This study somehow provides ideas on how component-component interactions influence experimented response.
Impacts and relationships on physicochemical properties in dark chocolate produced from different substitution for cocoa butter by Xanthan gum (XG) and Guar gum (GG) blends were determined using D-optimal mixture design. This study involved three levels of substitution which are 5%, 10% and 15% with constrained cocoa butter content and random blend of gums. Linear design models were applied to analyze parameters including texture (hardness) measurement and melting profile of fat crystal. Products experienced undesirable raises of hardness jointly with the increment of gums incorporation across the level of cocoa butter replacement from 5% to 15%. Similar trend was also agreed with the melting behavior of products as their melting point increased with the gradual diminution of cocoa butter. After all, the replacement of cocoa butter using hydrocolloids was deemed possible as there were products whose melting point and hardness fell in the acceptable range.
The main approach of this study is to develop high fiber bread by utilizing the cocoa-by products, namely cocoa pod husk which is incorporated into whole meal bread. The cocoa pod husk can be classified as one of the source of high fiber. The cocoa pod husk was dried and milled in order to produce the cocoa pod husk powder (CPHP). There were five different percentages of CPHP level incorporated into the high fiber bread which were formulation A (0% CPHP), formulation B (5% CPHP), formulation C (10% CPHP), formulation D (15% CPHP) and formulation E (20% CPHP). All of the samples undergone physical analysis and sensory evaluation. The incorporation of CPHP give significant effects towards bread volume and hardness attribute where the bread became denser and harder in texture as compared to the control. The color of bread crumb and crust was also changed to darker color. For the overall acceptance, formulation B has the highest mean score among the composite breads (formulation B to E) studied.
Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the most frequent sub-cortical degenerative disease, characterized by universal progressive disorder of the
nervous system that affects movement. This cross sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PD among elderly attending the neurology clinic in Serdang Hospital.
Methods A total of 150 records of patients attended the clinic from January to December 2016 were randomly selected. Data was collected using a proforma form seeking information related to age, gender, race, locality, and presence of comorbidity particularly diabetes mellitus. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) version 22.0.
Results The prevalence of PD among the elderly involved in the study was 34%. Majority of the respondents were aged 60 to 70 years old (54.7%), male (53.3%), Chinese (56.7%), from urban locality (93.0%) and were not diabetic (69.3%). The inferential statistics showed no significant association between all the factors with PD. However, the associations between age and diabetes mellitus with PD were almost significant with p values of 0.07 and 0.08 respectively.
Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of PD among elderly who attended the neurology clinic in year 2016 was less than half with none of the factors under study were significantly associated with PD. However with bigger sample size, possible significant association may be obtained between age and diabetes mellitus.
Satellite data and aerial photos have proved to be useful in efficient conservation and management of mangrove ecosystems. However, there have been only very few attempts to demonstrate the ability of drone images, and none so far to observe vegetation (species-level) mapping. The present study compares the utility of drone images (DJI-Phantom-2 with SJ4000 RGB and IR cameras, spatial resolution: 5cm) and satellite images (Pleiades-1B, spatial resolution: 50cm) for mangrove mapping-specifically in terms of image quality, efficiency and classification accuracy, at the Setiu Wetland in Malaysia. Both object- and pixel-based classification approaches were tested (QGIS v.2.12.3 with Orfeo Toolbox). The object-based classification (using a manual rule-set algorithm) of drone imagery with dominant land-cover features (i.e. water, land, Avicennia alba, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata and Casuarina equisetifolia) provided the highest accuracy (overall accuracy (OA): 94.0±0.5% and specific producer accuracy (SPA): 97.0±9.3%) as compared to the Pleiades imagery (OA: 72.2±2.7% and SPA: 51.9±22.7%). In addition, the pixel-based classification (using a maximum likelihood algorithm) of drone imagery provided better accuracy (OA: 90.0±1.9% and SPA: 87.2±5.1%) compared to the Pleiades (OA: 82.8±3.5% and SPA: 80.4±14.3%). Nevertheless, the drone provided higher temporal resolution images, even on cloudy days, an exceptional benefit when working in a humid tropical climate. In terms of the user-costs, drone costs are much higher, but this becomes advantageous over satellite data for long-term monitoring of a small area. Due to the large data size of the drone imagery, its processing time was about ten times greater than that of the satellite image, and varied according to the various image processing techniques employed (in pixel-based classification, drone >50 hours, Pleiades <5 hours), constituting the main disadvantage of UAV remote sensing. However, the mangrove mapping based on the drone aerial photos provided unprecedented results for Setiu, and was proven to be a viable alternative to satellite-based monitoring/management of these ecosystems. The improvements of drone technology will help to make drone use even more competitive in the future.
This is the first report of quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric identification of the hemoglobin (Hb) subunits, α, β, δ and γ peptides, derived from enzymatic-digestion of proteins in the early unknown peaks of the cation exchange chromatography of Hb. The objectives were to identify the unknown high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks in healthy subjects and in patients with β-thalassemia (β-thal). The results demonstrate the existence of pools of free globin chains in red blood cells (RBCs). The α-, β-, δ- and γ-globin peptides were identified in the unknown HPLC peaks. The quantification and role of the free globin pool in patients with β-thal requires further investigation. Identification of all types of Hb subunits in the retention time (RT) before 1 min. suggests that altered Hbs is the nature of these fast-eluting peaks. Relevancy of thalassemias to the protein-aggregation disorders will require review of the role of free globin in the pathology of the disease.